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P R I O R I T I E S & N E E D S
P o r t V i l a , V a n u a t u G J u l y 1 9 9 7
The University would like to acknowledge with gratitude the
support and assistance of the Vanuatu Government in facilitating the
successfi~l staging of the seminar. Particular mention is made of the hard
work by the national Planning Committee in the organisation and smooth
running of the seminar. The contributions by the authors of the various
papers, the panelists as well as all seminar participants, are gratefully
The support of the Australian Government in funding the Vanuatu
seminar is also acknowledged with appreciation.
Education, by its very nature, is about change. It is therefore crucial that USP i s
not simply just a spectator, but an active participant in the process of change. It would
be a serious error of judgement to assume that the institution will be shielded from
regional and global changes that are taking place in the tertiary education sector
generally. Member countries of the University will need to ensure that their priorities,
values, assun~ptions, organisational structures, current and future technology, and
quality controls can contribute to a successful future for USP as wcll as to their own
national education structures.
That there are no roads maps to the future presents member governments and
USP with a unique opportunity to map out their own. To chart a course that will
achieve our collective purpose and is financially responsible, we must first not only
understand ourselves, but also the likely trends in the external environment in which
universities are expected to operate. And as USP nears the beginning of the 21st
ccntury and its fourth decade of service to the region, it is opportune to pose the
question of whetl~er its course offeri~~gs,
research and consultancy activities are still
responding effectively and efficiently to the real needs of its melnber states.
While another regional "Future Directions" confere~lce similar to that held in
Suva in 1983, was possible, the University was of the view that it would be inadequate
for the purpose, given the changes in its clients' base. A minimum requirement for such
a conference would be participation by large nu~nbers of government departments,
statutory bodics and private concerns usually interested in the services of the University.
Clearly, this was not feasible because of resource and time constraints. As well, the
University wished to ensure that its strategic planning took account of the training
services offered by national tertiary training institutions, and their medium term
development plans, in each country.
For these reasons, the decision was taken by the Ministers of Education to l~old,
over a period of 12 months, a series of national se~ninars in eclucation in cach of the
University's twelve lne~nber
states, as part of the process to develop a USI' Corporate
Plan. The format adopted for the seminars was dcsigned to facilitate ~ n a x i m u ~ n
participation in the preparation of papcrs, the delivery of these papers, their discussion
and analyses, and finally acceptance of decisions concerning their priorities in the
education sector. The outcome of these discussions and deliberations for Vanuatu, the
eighth in the series of seminars, is recorded in the following pages. It should be
empllasised that the reconnnendations and proposals represent the collective wishes and
aspirations of the local community.
Public Sector Paper
Public Corporations Presentation
Public Forum & Panel Discussion
Non-Government Organisations Paper
Public Forum & Panel Discussion
Public Forum Discussion
The Vanuatu seminar was held at the Emalus Campus of the USP over
a two-day period from 9 -10 July 1997. Its main purposes were for the
Vanuatu community to advise USP of their requirements for future tertiary
training, and for all sections of the colnmunity to be more involved in the
process of identification, formulation and determination, particularly of
educational policy at the national level.
A total of five papers (see Appendices) were presented representing the
views and aspirations of the public sector, NGOs, the private sector, parents
and students, and the aid community. At the conclusion of each paper
presentation, members of the general public were invited to comment on any
aspects of the paper or any other matter they felt was relevant to the
discussion (see Attachment A for seminar programme). A Panel, comprising
local representatives (names presented in Attachment B) were then asked to
discuss and analyse the paper, take into account any cominents made during
the public forum session which they deemed usefill, and to prioritise the
needs of that section of the cominunity as they saw them. In both the public
forum and panel sessions, it was not a requirement to speak in English.
Participants were welcomed to communicate in their own language and this
opportunity was used by some people.
The final session of the seminar was used to bring together the various
priorities of the sectors involved in a consensus "list of priorities" that
represents the national interest.
This report, then, reflects what the people, Government, and education
authorities see ahead for their national education system, and for their
Summary Record of Seminar
Wednesday 9 July 1997
Mr Thornas Simon Marakitere, on behalf of the Vanuatu Planning
Committee, extended a special welco~ne and thanked the Minister of
Education, Youth and Sports, Honourable Louis Carlot, for accepting the
invitation to officially open the seminar. He then invited Pastor Allen Naf~iki
to offer the opening prayer. Mr Jacques Sese, Director-General of Education,
officially welcomed representatives of the diplo~natic corps, government
departments, and non-government organisations, and thanked them all for
attending the seniinar despite their numerous commitments. The Director-
General also thanked the Planning Co~nlnittee for their hard work in the
organisation and successf~~l
staging of the seminar.
IHon. Carlot expressed pleasure at being invited to officially open the
Vanuatu Strategic Planni~lg
Seminar in education. In particular, he said he
was very happy to see USP (a regional university and also Vanuatu's national
university) taking the opportunity to solicit and listen to the views and
aspirations of all the various co~nmunities in the ~nenlber countries. The
Minister reminded the seminar that the real world was characterised by
constant movement and economic and social changes. There was, therefore,
a real need for the University to adapt quickly to these changes taking into
account the circumstances prevailing at the local and regional levels. It was
for Vanuatu to understand this reality, and for USP to take
note of these changes and respond to then1 in a respo~lsible and effective
manner. He said the decision to hold national seminars was ideal for it
allowed all sectors of the co~ntnunity to share their experiences and
perceptions, and together to identify appropriate needs and priorities in the
USP like other education and training institutions in the country, the
Minister said, had a significant role to play in achieving the goals and ainis of
the Vanuatu Comprehensive Reform Programme (CRP).
informed tlie seminar that his Ministry was currently involved in
restructuring post-secondary education with the aim of making it more
responsive to addressing the development needs of Vanuatu. It was also
crucial that young ni-Vanuatu possessed the necessary skills that would allow
them to become active, competent, and productive liiembers of the
community. In conclusion, the Minister expressed the hope that discussions
over the duration of the seminar would be fruitful and a consensus
established that would lead to the identification of priorities for consideration
by Government. He then declared the seminar open.
Professor John Lynch thanked the Minister on behalf of the
University and said that tlie Vice-Chancellor sent his apologies for not being
able to attend. He said the seminars were designed to help USP plan its
future programmes and courses to ensure that they were in areas of real needs
to the member countries. As such, he said that the role of USP at the seminar
was to listen and to provide clarification when needed.
PUBLIC SECTOR PAPER: James N. Toa - Senior Planning Officer
Human Resource Development Unit, National Planning Office
The public sector paper was presented by Mr James Toa. In his
introductory remarks, Mr Toa noted the objectives of the seminar and said
that unfortunately Vanuatu had not clone any specific assessment on the
effectiveness of USP on tlie economy, nor an internal national priority
training needs assessment for future nlanpower requirements except for broad
policies in the Development Plan and in the recent endorsed CRP document.
I-Ie said that the paper sliould be viewed as a discussion document and the
recom~nendations should be treated as the presenter's and not necessarily
those of Government. The full text of the public sector paper has been
reproduced in Appendix 1.
Mr Toa saw education as the key to development. In the loiig-term,
the educational goal of Vanuatu was for the provision of ten years of high
quality education for the majority of eligible students. In the medium-term,
the aim was to inlprove the quality of scl~ooling, and for the sustai~iable
expansion of the education system. I-Iowever, Mr Toa cautioned that the
achievement of these goals would need to be carefrilly assessed in terms of
the unique circumstances obtaining in the country. For instance, there were
over 105 vernaculars, two official languages and one national language,
schools scattered over more than sixty islands, high rate of population
growth, rapid urban drift, and a low level of formal scl~ooling
of the majority
of the adult population.
The paper then highlighted major areas of need at the primary and
secondary levels that would required attention in the future. Mr Toa said that
the CRP had identified five main areas of concern hindering tlie effectiveness
of the education system in Vanuatu. These were:
Financing of education.
Relevance of education and training.
The paper went on to ernphasise that access to primary school was
reasonable althougll it would require continual rapid growth to cater to the
current national growth rate of the school-age population of 4.5% per year.
On primary education, it was noted that many of the schools in the outer
islands were slnall and isolated and as a result were very expensive to service
and maintain. In addition, the following were identified as problem areas:
Lack of physical facilities.
Limited cash earning.
Untrained primary school teachers - 24% of all primary scl~ool
Young people leaving sc11001 especially at the end of the sixth or
Mr Toa said that if tlle high growth rate of school-age students was to
continue this would effectively mean the doubli~lg of pri~nary scl~ool
enrolments by the year 2010. The following reco~nrnendations were made
for consideration by USP:
with the Vanuatu Department of Education to
design and co-ordinate courses in school atlministration,
planning and management for principals of prilnary and junior
In collaboration with the Department of Education, assess and
improve the management of extension studies being carried out
by primary school teachers.
In collaboration with Government, local and international
NGOs, assist in researching and developing the pre-school
sector. Main areas of concern include: curriculum, materials,
and teacher developlnent.
Of the total 39 secondary SCIIOO~S in Vanuatu, 22 were Govern~nent
owned, 6 were privately owned and 1 1 were Governlnent assisted. The
national studentlteacher ratio was 17: 1, with only two schools (Mnlapoa and
Matevulu) offering year 13 bursary. At the end of grade 6, about 33% of the
students were able to progress to grade 7, while at the end of grade 10 this
figure increased to 52% for progression to year 11 (for 1994195 school year).
The lack of available places in both grades 7 and 11 w a s given as the main
reason for this high attrition rate among year 6 and 10 students. T h e paper
further highlighted the perennial problem of untrained teachers noting that
33% of those teaching in vocationalltecl~nical schools were untrained
compared to about 9% for secondary schools. In the latter case, however, it
was noted that Inany of the secondary schools teachers were expatriates. M r
Toa concluded this section by recommending that "USP and the Department
of Education, through the Secondary Education Unit, co-ordinate extension
studies for those teachers who have not completed their studies and those
who wish to undertake post-graduate study to improve their capabilities."
On predicted manpower needs of the country, M r Toa said that this
was difficult to assess as no studies had yet been made. Some indications
could, however, be gleaned from Vanuatu's DP4 and the CRP on what these
needs might be. For example, Inore training for the private sector targeting
areas such as accounting, tourism, bankinglcredit, business, and economics.
In addition, Mr Toa said that the current national Manpower Survey could
also provide some indications of specific needs in this area. It was also
envisaged that the analysis of the survey would form the basis for evaluating
the strengths and wealcnesses of the total labour force in Govern~iient and
statutory bodies. The National Planning Office had, in colljunction with
relevant agencies, being tasked to produce a comprehensive human resource
development plan for all sectors of the community. O f particular interest, Mr
Toa said, was the large number of expatriates currently employed in the
education sector (102 in 1996).
On the main criteria for selecting candidates for scholarship awards,
it was noted that this was based primarily on the student's acaclernic
perfon~nance. As such, awarding scholarships based on national needs was
not a major consideration at the present time. The fi~rther
training and re-
training of both the public and private sector work force was considered as
one of the top priorities in the paper. The following recom~nendations
directed t o USP:
In collaboration with Training and Scholarships CO-ordinating
Unit (TSCU), to undertake a tracer study of graduates who were
in obtaining awards since 1986.
To consider lowering its funding criteria to private regional
students from lnernber countries.
According to Mr Toa, education received very high priority in the
allocation of the country's ~lational
budget. In 1990 for instance, 807 million
vatu was allocated to the education sector representing over 16% of
Government's total recurrent budget. In 1996, this figure had increased to
1,285 million vatu or about 20% of the nation's budget. In addition, the bulk
of all aid funds to the country, over one third in 1995 01. 1,909 million vatu,
was directed towards supporting education projects.
Approxi~nately 3,500 school leavers entered the labour market each
year. On the distribution of scholarships by gender, the paper provided
statistics to show that boys dominated studies in the fields of engineering,
agriculture and medicine while girls tended to congregate in
businesslsecretarial, teaching, medical support services and nursing. It was
envisaged, Mr Toa said, that the HRD Plan would benefit both sexes and the
country in general by guiding students to pursue careers in fields most suited
to their natural talents rather that1 those imposed by society. In line with the
above, the paper made the following recornmendations:
That USP carry out a tracer study on ni-Vanuatu graduates since
1986 to assess the capacity of students being employed into
organisations related to their fields of study (complement to
That the Department of Education in collaboration with TSCU
establish a Career Advisory Unit to assist achieve the objective
as indicated in (a) above.
In Vanuatu, roughly 80% of e~nploy~nent
and econornic activities
were represented by the agricultural subsistence sector. A significant long-
term developlnent goal facing Government was how to transform this sector
into a more colnmercially oriented sector, to meet the aspirations of the
community. A study carried out by the Department of Industry and Trade in
1996 found that 90% of small business owners laclced tlie necessary basic
business sltills and knowledge in such areas as bookkeeping, pricing, banking
procedures, record keeping, and the ability t o assess the viability of their
businesses. Mr Toa also highlighted the commitment made in the CRP and
DP4 towards "private sector led growth" into the 21" century. Taking into
account that 12% of the total work force were employed in the commercial
private sector, the paper suggested the following:
USP through the national Chamber of C o ~ n ~ n e r c e
provide researching assistance to improve tlie small business
sector of Vanuatu.
Courses relating to the private sector must be taught with other
specific additional courses that could provide encouragement for
graduates to gain commitment and to establish their own
enterprise on return.
USP to collaborate with Rural Business Develop~nent
research and assess the capacity of needs that is present among
the r ~ ~ r a l
business community, and create training programmes
for this specific sector tl~rough
its continuing education arm.
One of the more pressing problems facing Vanuatu, according to the
public sector paper, was the requirement to address the needs o f the 70% of
students wlio were unable to continue with their school studies. In many
cases, these students did not have adequate o r appropriate slcills t o allow
them to secure one of the few available waged jobs. Of this number, the
majority were absorbed into the rural sector without sufficient ernployineni
skills. While Rural Training Centres (RTCs) were providing some life skills
for school leavers, much more needed to be done to properly address the
needs of this group. The following proposals were directed towards USP:
In collaboration with CYP, to develop training paclcages
specifically for confidence building for the purpose o f livelihood
and srnall business development, particularly in project planning
Through the Emalus campus and Santo sub-centre, to facilitate
youth training and development through its continuing education
The provision of tertiary education in Vanuatu was made possible
through several avenues. These included: specialised vocational institutions
f o r nursing, agriculture, police and teachers; technical and vocational centres;
USP; Institute Nationale Technologic de Vanuatu; and a handful of privately
operated vocational schools catering mainly for secretarial and middle level
accounting needs. The paper recommended the following for consideration
a n d action by USP:
USP recognises Vanuatu's national technical institution (INTV)
through a formal arrangement and assists in any undertaking that
will support, benefit and improve activities in technical and
That vocational/short-term training be co-ordinated through the
Ernalus campus, calling on specific topics that may con~pliment
existing post-secondary institutions, such as in agriculture,
marine, business, computer, and credit.
Commenting on the interest of parents and students, the paper stated
that the primary objective of this group for education was to obtain a
qualification that would lead to employment in the monetary sector. In
noting that parents and students would be making a separate presentation, the
public sector paper suggested the following areas for consideration by the
USP and TSCU to jointly co-ordinate a "Career-talk
Programme" on courses available at USP (and other
institutions) and the likely needs of the country in the next 5-1 0
Discuss periodically with provincial governments the future
needs of human resources for sustainable socio-economic
development and relate these needs to USP through the Ministry
That credit degree courses offered through extension be revised
and increased with the possibility o f completing diploma and
degree programmes through extension. These courses must be
centred around the immediate needs of the CRP.
The paper concluded by proposing the following recommendations
directed towards credit courses, extension studies, research and consultancy,
and post graduate programmes. These included:
USP co-ordinate short-term training in credit and possibly merge
this with its bookkeeping course during the summer school
That a certificate in business studies/management. be merged
with a course on credit procedures, project planni~ig
management, and be offered through extension.
(iii) Review and improve all extension progralnmes to ensure they
were responding to the real dernands and priority needs o f the
(iv) Increase the number of degree courses offered through extension
with the possibility of colnpleting more degree progralnlnes
through this mode of study.
of a consultancy and research arm of USP.
(vi) USP in collaboration with the Vanuatu Government, co-ordinate
post-graduate progranllnes according to existing delnands and
The Chairperson thanked Mr Toa for his comprehensive and inforl~~attive
presentation before inviting colnnlents from the genera1 public.
PUBLIC FORUM DISCUSSION
The first contribution pointed to the need for a legal framework if the
implementation of proposed recommendations at the post-secondary level
was to succeed. It was also suggested that co-ordination of the work
programmes of the various post-secondary institutions/units was a must to
avoid duplication of efforts. In response to a question regarding the public
sector's three top priorities, it was clarified that the Public Service
Commission had requested all departments to submit their requirements for
education and training through the formulation of their own individual
On the issue of priorities in the public sector, one
participant offered the following as his own personal views: a long-tenn
manpower survey across all sectors; public sector workers to be more
qualified; and strengthen the education sector in all areas where USP has the
capacity to help.
Another area of need highlighted in this session was quality trainers
at all education levels. Equally important, it was argued, was the need for
research to establish the real causes of some of the problems being
experienced in the education sector. It was suggested that the basic problem
facing the country could be traced to the grassroots level. As voters, most of
these people were not always qualified to understand national needs and this
group alone accounted for over 80% of Vanuatu's population. An adult
education programme directed towards educating this significant group was
one of the top priorities for Government and USP to consider. It was also
pointed out that education and the needs of the labour market should be
closely related to ensure that graduates could fit into the work place after
According to one participant, the first priority for education was
training at all levels followed by appropriate curriculum development. On
the issue of qualified teachers, it was noted that while over 90% of teachers at
the secondary level were classified as 'trained', this masked the fact that
there could still be a shortage in other areas besides maths and languages. In
reply to a query, it was explained the gender issue had been under discussion
for some time. Aid donors were pressing the Government to achieve gender
equality. This was a view that was difficult for Government to implement.
It would be preferable to look at the specific qualities males and females
could offer society rather than gender balance for its own sake.
One of the lcey issues that needed careful consideration was the type of
training desired by Vanuatu for its people. The needs of disadvantaged
groups such as the handicapped and women deserved special consideration, it
was argued. In developing education and training progralntnes Tor local
consumption, caution should also be exercised to ensure that the system did
not produce graduates who could not cope in the real world.
important, therefore, that students were aware of their roots, environment,
community, and expectations as these woulcl give them direction in their
studies. Individuals, it was argued, developed at different rates. There was
merit in considering late entry to secontlary schools for late developers to
allow them to develop at their own pace. The issue o f what type of training
should be given to the children was again raisecl.
24. The discussion then turnecl to the issue of an appropriate ~ n e d i i ~ l n
instruction for Vanuatu. It was observed that the Constitution stated the
languages of education as English and French. I-Iowever, Bislalna was the
only uniting factor in educational instilutions. It was argued that the decision
as to whicl~ la n g ~ ~ a g e
to use should be based o n the language needs of the
community. At the present time, the majority of the populatio~l needed
vocational training in Rislama.
A suggestion was ~ n a d e for INTV to
investigate the possibility of apprenticeship training t o help young people
gain confidence and work skills experience in the private sector. This salne
principle could also apply to other similar institutions such as S t Michel
Training Centre and the Lolowai Training Centre. In addition, there was an
urgent need to co-ordinate efforts in this area and produce a coherent national
vocational programme that was meaningful for all levels of school leavers
and all regions. The need for national standardisation of all vocational
training centres was also discussed.
2 5 .
A concern was expressed that since Independence, Vanuatu had n o
legal policy or policy directives. If Vanuatu was thinking of i~tiproving
quality of education, then what it should be looking at first was appropriate
policies. The speaker said that there had been some political interference.
The next speaker congratulated the presenter of the paper. He said that
Vanuatu must concentrate on the purpose of this seminar, that is, some
directives and recolli~nendations for the USP Corporate Plan. It was clear
that participants wanted more involvement by USP in education
development. USP needed to be a lot Inore involved in ~najor areas of
education and training.
The idea of some framework or "tecl~nical
backstopping" was necessary, for example, in-service training for good
governance, using the resources of the Law Faculty. Because of USP's
regional expertise, it could contribute greatly to continuing education. Were
the 6 years of primary education equipping children with the skills they
would need in their communities? In the CRP there was provision ibr a
review of the relevance of primary education. USP could make a valuable
contribution to that debate, it was argued. USP could also help to ellsure that
the education syste~n
provided the required tertiary trained human resources
and at tlie same time could assist in researcI~/consulta~icy
011 the relevance of
The final speaker supported the view that the Government still had 110
real education policy after 17 years of independence. He enquired as to the
whereabouts of a national policy on education which the National Planning
Office s11ould be responsible.
The first panellist mentioned several issues relating to possible areas
where USP's assistance could be sought to address the current situation in
education. She admitted that there was no for~nalised policy oil teaches
training, but said USP could help witli in-service training. I-Iowcver, she
acknowledged the difficulty with the upgrading of in-service teachcrs since
USP does not recognise the Vanuatu Teacher's College Diplolnn. Likewise
the case of Francophone teachers and how USP could assist then1 to upgrade
their qualifications was also mentioned.
The second panellist stated that many of the issues raised in tlie public
forum pointed to the need for USP to help address issues such as formulating
national edilcatiollal policies. The forum was, however, reminded t.11at it
needed to prioritise the areas where it was felt that USP could give its
assistance. One area he pin-pointed was postgraduate studies as he was not
aware of any ni-Vanuatu benefiting from USP's postgraduate programmes.
Another area identified was the quality of teachers. There was a need to
assist teachers, for example, through extension studies, to ilnprove their skills
and upgrade their qualifications.
USP could also help in translation
according to the same panellist. There was a big need in Vanuatu for people
qi~aliiied in translation and perhaps USP could help in the translation o f
nlaterials for Francophone students. He went on to suggest that USP could
look at the special needs of the Francophone student population of Vanuatu.
With regard to policy, the speaker said that CRP was aimed at redressing this
problem. It was therefore irnportant to have a national education policy that
would not be invalidated when Government changed.
The third panellist was particularly interested in non-formal education
and training. I-Ie supported the need to set up special training schemes for
those wlio had been on the job for Inany years but who did not have access t o
programmes which would give them formal qualifications. Could USP assist
in this area? He went on to say that there had been a lot of talk about the
400-500 expatriates working in Vanuatu with 60% of them doing jobs that
ni-Vanuatu could do. The Labour Department supported the National
Planning Office in their attempt to identify areas like engineering, where
there was a real lack of manpower resources. Could USP look at and
ernphasise this area? Hc concluded by saying that it was not enough just to
educate for white collar jobs. Education must be directed into areas where
ni-Vanuatu coulcl train to take the places of these 400-500 expatriates.
The final panellist entlorsed the need for a policy framework before
getting down to planning. FIe suggested that Ministry officials be asked for
assistance in this area. Perhaps they could ask for USP consultants to help
out. He went on to tliscuss the probleln of lack of access to further education
and training and suggested that the current level of access must be expanded
by way of "double time" and more utilisation of school facilities. As far as
the needs of young ni-Vanuatu, he asked whether Vanuatu had addressed
agricultural education in an effective way or simply educating young people
for white collar jobs? He acknowledged that young people needed the means
of making a living in the rural area as well as the urban area. In that case
USP was the most appropriate body for providing this kind of training. The
views of the young people were very important in the for~uulation
and must be taken into account, he urged. Finally, he stated that USP could
assist the Government to make more appropriate long-term policies.
The Chairperson then summed up this session by asking U S P to assist
in identifying priority needs. He agreed that while there was a need for
policy/ideology, the next step was not just to leave education platforlns to
gather dust on the shelf. They needed to be implemented, honoured and
monitored. The need for greater and better co-ordination amongst the
various institutions in order to effectively deal with education in rural areas,
Year 10 school leavers, SPR (Spearem Publik Rod) and other proble~ns
of paramount importance. In addition, there was a great need for a better
information database, especially on students studying overseas and their
fields of study. In conclusion, he reaffirmed the need for Vanuatu to work
more closely with USP, and the region generally.
Based on the public sector paper and cominents and recoin~neildations
made during the public forum and panel discussion the following priority
areas were identified as requiring urgent attention in the future:
Access, quality, relevance, management, and financing o f
Long-term manpower survey for all sectors.
(iii) Training of quality trainers.
(vi) Co-ordination between the various post-secondary institutions
be encouraged, promoted and itnplemented.
Developlnent of adult continuing education programme
targeting the grassroots.
(vi) Closer links between education and training and the labour
(vii) Developinent of appropriate curriculum.
for untrained primary school teachers.
(ix) Development of training programmes to address the needs o f
school leavers especially those leaving at the end of years 6 and
Further training and retraining of the public and private sector
(xi) Standardisation of all vocational training centres.
(xii) Focus to be directed towards the education and training needs o f
the private sector as highlighted in the CRP.
(xiii) Lack of physical and appropriate support facilities.
In addition, the following were reco~ntnended for direct USE' attention:
Design and co-ordinate courses in school administration,
planning and lnaliagelnent for principals of primary and junior
Assess and improve the management of extension studies being
carried out by primary school teachers.
Assist in researching and developing the pre-school sector
in areas such as cul+riculum and teacher training.
Undertake a tracer study on the whereabouts of graduates
supported by education and training awards since 1986.
Undertake research in appropriate areas of concern to the
Vanuatu community, e.g. s~nall
Develop and implement programmes directed towards those
students who could not progress f~lrther
in their studies.
Support and strengthen national institutio~is
such as INTV.
Increase the number of extension courses with the possibility of
completing more degree and diploma progralnlnes through this
Establish a research and consultancy arm of the University.
Co-ordinate post-graduate programmes according to demands
and available funding.
POST SECONDARY INSTITUTIONS PRESENTATION:
Mr Carlos Simarro, French Tecl~nical
Dr Bill Vistarini, Team Leader, AusAID Institutional Strengthening
The presentation for this session was shared by two speakers. A copy
of their paper is reproduced as Appendix 2. Mr Simarro started by saying
that the purpose of their paper was to stiinulate discussion on post-secondary
education in Vanuatu. In his presentation, he highlighted a number of
challenges for the Vanuatu post-secondary educatioll sector and identified the
following problems that needed to be addressed:
lack of any real capacity to predict manpower needs
paucity of links between education and training institutions and
potential employers, especially those in the private sector. This
also meant that employers had limited input into the content,
and location of training.
(iii) articulation between the secondary and post-secondary sector
was unclear. (It was not particularly clear within the sector.)
This meant that there were few clear signposts or pathways for
planning for this sector had been less than
evaluation of the performance of the sector had been limited.
(vi) planning for appropriate change had been hindered by poor
communication and lack of information.
(vii) difficulty in responding to revised budgeting arrangements.
35. Mr Simarro said that INTV needed to be upgraded. There was also no
clear planning for vocational teacher training at TNTV and guidelines were
not clear. He highlighted point (v) above with the need for external
evaluation as very important and said that there was not enough
communication between Vanuatu Teacher's College and other post-
secondary institutions. As far as the major issues were concerned, M r
Simarro identified these as:
tension between the anglophone and fiancophone sections;
ad hoc discussions only about development;
projections based on anecdotal information; and
pressures from foreign aid donors.
111 conclusion, Mr Simarro said that there was a need to address the
above issues as some reports were out of touch with the industry. People
needed to visit INTV to obtain first-hand information before malting claims
based on hearsay. Dr Vistarini said that a major concern was to establish
industry training advisory coliilnittees in conjunction with other institutions,
like USP, Government Training Centres etc.
needed to be avoided and maximum co-ordination between tlie various
institutions must be encouraged. Advisory committees needed to be given
real productive work in order to function. The presenter then reiterated some
of the important issues that needed discussion. They included:
the need for more effective human resource planning;
mechanisms for planning within the post-secondary sector;
the nature of linlts with the private and government sectors;
tlie need for greater sectoral autonomy;
the importance of access for adult and return-to-learn students;
the need to increase gender equity;
the implications of proposals to move to triennial funding, 'net
increasing pressure to seek funding from other-than-government
appropriate training for students who may not find formal
articulation or pathways between and within sectors;
the role of Bislama; and
the expectation that the sector should be more efficient: it
should do Inore with less.
37. Dr Vistarini then elaborated on some of the issues identified above.
INTV at present was being treated as a junior secondary school and gender
equity had to be handled very carefully, he said. There was some discussion
o n establishing an Arts and Craft section at INTV. He went on to say that the
role of Bislama in training must be considered and warned that "we shall
have to do more with less". Dr Vistarini then proposed the establishment of a
national vocational training system in Vanuatu.
In order for that to
eventuate, there had to be a national structure, a proper legal framework, he
argued. He recommended that the CRP needed to be underpinned by a
training framework. Further, he said Vanuatu needed an Act to establish
such a system.
In concluding the post-secondary institutions' presentation, Mr
Simarro commented on the use of Bislama and proposed that this was
essential for communication with students i'i3om the private sector. On-the-
job people in industry often did not have the language expertise to be taught
in French or English. The trainees would have to be grouped in their
language areas. Finally he asked "which department is going to be
responsible for the implementation of the recommendations of their paper?"
Mr Simarro saw this as coming from ni-Vanuatu, not expatriates. The
Chairperson thanked Mr Simarro and Dr Vistarini for their presentation
before inviting comments from the floor,
PUBLIC FORUM AND PANEL DISCUSSION
The contributions from the floor raised a number of issues including
the need for INTV to serve the vocational needs of Year 10 school leavers.
INTV could help in upgrading artefacts, arts and crafts quality, for the
tourism industry. It was also felt that USP could assist in offering and
allowing the use of their library facilities to INTV and the Vanuatu Teacher's
College. Post secondary institutions should work together to help themselves
and not always rely on outside assistance.
The issue regarding the
standardisation of Bislama and how USP could assist in this process was
raised. In reply the Pro Vice-Chancellor (Ernalus Campus) said that the
standardisation of Bislania had already been effected and incorporated in the
New Bislaina Dictionary. Tlie only people using this standardised version
were the bible translators and the acadetnics at USP.
Several interventions supported the use of Bislalna in training courses
given it was the only uniting factor in educational institutions. However, it
was pointed out that the Vanuatu Constitution clearly stated that the
"principal" languages of education were English and French. More than one
language could be used. What was more important was getting the message
across, it was argued. If students are going o n to high school and university
then obviously tlie standard of English or French required would be higher.
One of tlie speakers made the point that Government should ensure that
INTV overseas experts should all have a ni-Vanuatu counterpart in order for
development to be sustainable. The need for a legal framework was also
endorsed as a pre-requisite to supporti~ig
in the post secondary
institutions. On the other hand it was pointed out that an act OF Parliament
was not enough and standards lnust be set for each level. Another speaker
said that the increase in the number of tecl~nical
schools and RTCs mirrored
the failure of the forrnal education systeni to accornrnodate the numbers o f
children wanting to enter the system. He asked INTV and USP to co-
ordinate technological needs and skills that should b e taught at each level -
RTC's, junior secondary schools, senior high scliools, INTV and universities.
In the private sector there was some confusion as to what exactly
were the qualifications of an INTV graduate, it was clainiecl. The private
sector wanted to use skilled people and needed to have inpiits into the future
developnient of INTV. The term "drop-out" should be avoided. INTV c o ~ l l d
do well to investigate the possibility of apprenticeship training, to help young
people gain confidence and worldskills experience in the private sector,
which was driven by time and money. There was a need to co-ordinate all
efforts and produce a coherent nationaI vocational programme that was
meaningful for all levels of school leavers and all regions (urban and rural).
For INTV graduates wishing to proceed for further studies, it was pointed out
that help was needed in bridging the gap between an INTV qualification and
the higher entry level, say for a USP BTech degree. This raised the issue of
accreditation and tlie desirability of putting in place linkages or natural
progression to enable students to proceed further. Such progressions needed
to be clear and consistent.
The following areas were identified as requiring attention as perceived
by post-secondary institutions:
Manpower needs assessment survey be implemented.
Closer links between education and training institutions and
Clarification of articulation between the secondary and post-
Comprehensive planning and evaluation of perforlnance in the
sector, seen as crucial.
Lack of proper cornrnunication and information flow between
Duplication of efforts to be avoicled and maximum co-ordination
Increase gender equity.
More effective links between Government and the private
A national post-secondary education and training framework be
established by legislation. (This framework sllo~tld
educational and management structures, skills levels and allow
for al-ticulation and accreditation).
Bislatna to be accepted as a nlediurn of teaching in the post-
secondary sector, especially in practical classes.
USP to consider Inore carefully the needs of fiancophol~e
Thursday 10 July 1997
The session opened with a prayer by Mrs Adeline Liu, President of the
Churches of Christ Conference. After the Chairman reviewed the main
points from the previous day a supplementary paper was presented by M s
Leah Loringlnal on behalf of the Lycee Louis Antoine de Bougainville,
which made two recomlnendations as to how USP could assist francophone
USP should become a bilingual university, catering for
francophones as well as anglophones in the region; and
continued in-service teacher training, either a t USP o r Vanuatu
Teachers College, and CFEB for francophone teachers.
NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS PAPER: Mr Abel Nalio
The non-government orga~lisation paper was presented by M r Abel
Nako. The paper was in four parts. Part one presented an analysis o f the
concept of education in the context of Vanuatu. This was followed by a brief
examination on the focus of education against the long and medium-term
goals of education; quality and sustainable expansion. The role o f iilclividuaI
education providers in an attempt to achieve these goals was the subject o f
part three. The final section of the paper was a proposal to re-focus
education in Vanuatu with special attention being directed t o the rural
pop~~lation. The full text of the NGOs' paper has been reproduced in
According to the NGO paper, education fulfillecl four basic purposes.
These were literacy, vocational/life skills, technical, and professional. In
addition, it also served as a vehicle for self-discipline and it allowed
individuals to realise their full potential. Despite efforts to improve the
education system, Mr Nako said that the present system was responsible for
80% of primary students remaining in their villages without properly
equipping them with life skills. Mr Nako then highlighted s o m e of the
practical issues that lie claimed had contributed to the current malaise. These
included: tension between angloplione and kancophone; slnall pool of
trainers; and rapid growth in school age population. I n response to these
issues, Governluent had built more French schools, taught both English and
French in schools, provided more scholarships, changed pri~nary
and free primary education/school fees subsidy.
The paper then argued that given the present situation in education,
there was an urgent need to refocus priorities in education. M r Nako
presented data which showed that 67% of primary students remained in rural
villages, and less than seven per cent progressed to year 11. He also said that
the current education frameworlc allowed different institutions to pursue an
educational trend that was oriented towards jobs in the urban area. In
summary, Mr Nako observed that the current education system was perceived
focused on different educational institutions subscribing to
education derived from split purposes with unrealistic
expectation of ernployrnent opportunities.
producing a disoriented sense of empowerment for ni-Vanuatu.
portraying and promoting disparity among individuals and
communities, as well as elitism.
distancing itself from school dropouts.
not concerned with the vocational sector.
The paper then strongly argued for a change in focus of the education
sector through the following:
re-visiting the colntnon purpose of education for an analysis
so that different educational institutions have a colnlnon base
and are working towards colntnon ends although retaining their
reviewing the priniary school curriculum.
rural training centres to play a more significant role a s a n
education provider for Vanuatu.
(iv) sustainable livelihood and business ventures to become the
prime focus of the proposed change.
the need to standardise Bislalna and formalising it a s a medium
of instruction for training.
The paper also argued for more direct linkages between RTCs/NGOs
and the wicler industry through INTV. Mr Nako then made the point that
sustainability and dependency do not work together. To be successful in
business it was essential that tliis dependency mentality be eliminated. T h e
following suggestions were proposed:
primary school curriculum to be reviewed with RTCs beconling
a real option for a large portion of primary school leavers.
training in RTCs to be carried out by NGOs within the related
fields of health, literacy, environment, and civil rights to support
to be the official medium of communication at RTCs.
more direct links to be established between RTCs and INTV.
INTV to develop sub-centres in the six provinces.
INTV to become highly specialised and to cater directly to RTCs
needs and in turn rural industry needs.
Mr Nako concluded his presentation by highlighting the following areas for
USP in close collaboration with the MOE identify lneasures to
bridge the gap between the une~nployed
rural youth population
and formal vocational training.
Establish closer working relationships with NGOs, particularly
(iii) Run certificate courses in community develop~nent
the needs of Vanuatu.
(iv) Facilitate business courses in close collaboration with the
Department of Co-operatives and Rural Business conducive to
the local business environment and economic activities.
Work with MOE towards national standards in non-formal
(vi) Upgrade the standard of Tagabe Agriculture School with the
help of School of Agriculture at Alafua campus.
PUBLIC FORUM AND PANEL DISCUSSION
The first contribution from the floor observed that while the NGO
paper had some excellent recommendations, he was concerned tliat USP was
expected to be everything to everyone. If Vanuatu was really going to
become an independent nation, who is going to produce the internationally
recognised plumbers, welders etc, he said. When talking about scholarships,
people were effectively talking about dependency, he claimed. In reply, the
presenter said that not everyone was expected to have recognised certificates.
Grassroots people acquired skills by practical transfer through informal
Another participant reminded the forum that the best resource that
Vanuatu had was the land and there was a need to place sonle emphasis on
agricultural training. It was pointed out, however, that while at Malapoa
College efforts were being made to encourage the teaching of agriculture in
schools, in reality students opted for courses tliat would lead to white collar
jobs. Very few students wanted to go and work on the land. I-Ie also said
that USP had courses in agriculture but very few wanted to study agriculture.
Several interventions shared the view that Government bodies and NGOs
should work together to address the coinnlon problerns of Vanuatu. Where
USP could help was in Inore teacher training, including more pre-school
teacher training, because there was a real need for qualified teachers in all
areas of education. Other contributions raised the issue of "what are w e
educatingltraining people for?" a s the main question to pose. There was a
definite need to address the problelns of why young people preferred t o
become pilots rather than learning to work the land.
One participant commended the NGOs for their active participation in
colnrnunity developlnent in the sense that they had shown that it was not just
USP that had come to the aid of colnlnunity education. While USP already
had a well-established continuing education prograinme and non-formal
programmes, to date there had not been a great deal of interest in them. It
was clarified that the USP Centre was happy to supply further information if
needed. The Centre and sub-centre were ilnportant providers of training
At the conclusion of the public forulli discussion, the
Chairperson invited Mr Geordie Mackenzie-Reur from the private sector t o
present his sulninary of Wednesday's discussions. He said that SPR (young
leavers: Spearem Publik Rod) was a very negative term
and suggested that these young people needed the oppol-tunity to contribute
and should be considered as "Special Prod~~ctive
Resource" instead. H e
colnlnented on inappropriate curriculu~n and policies a s well a s frequent
changes in educatioll policy, as problern areas. I-Ie proposed the following
use of Industry Advisory Committees;
formalising the co-ordination of training institutions (use of
available resources for identifying training needs)-to give
direction for post secondary students; and
establishment of forrllal systems/str~~cture
recognitionlcertification of the skills of the present workforce
and develop training prograrnlnes to meet gaps.
seriously look at INTV recommendations for the establishment
of a National (Vocational) Training System Act. Need a
comprehensive (national) review of the education system as
recommended in the CRP; and
disagreement with NGO recommendation for free education
because it decreased self-reliance and removed incentive to work
for and value education.
The Chairperson also invited Mr Etienne Warimavute and M s Leah
Lloringmal both of Lycee LAB to give a short statement. They emphasised
problems of access to USP, especially for students coming out of Year 13 and
14 from Lycee. They also questioned the decision to put back the Cours
Superieur de Formation (CSF) at Lycee instead of remaining at USP.
Mention was made of an agreement in Paris in 1994 to equalise the
opportunities for anglophone and francophone students from Years 11 to
13/14 level. The signatories of this agreement had agreed that Lycee students
at 13/14 level should go to USP. This had been the case in the past but
students were now back at Lycee. In summary, they reiterated that the door
to higher education for francophone students was hardly open and this was a
Many of the participants symphasised with Lycee's problem and
agreed that it needed to be addressed immediately by all parties concerned.
The forum was reminded that the Lycee problem was a difficult one to
address given that USP was made up of 12 member countries with 11.5 of
them English speaking. For USP to operate as a bilingual English and
French University was, therefore, difficult.
54. The following priority areas were identified by the NGOs paper and
the public discussion as requiring attention:
addressing the needs of the 80% of primary students who
dropped out of schools for whatever reason.
training of trainers.
refocus of priorities in education.
making available vocational training, particularly for rural
reviewing the primary school curriculum.
establishing more direct links between RTCs and INTV.
For USP the following areas were suggested for consideration:
identifying measures to bridge the gap between the unemployed
rural youth and formal vocational training.
adnlinistering certificate courses in comn~unity
relevant to the needs of Vanuatu.
facilitating the offering of business courses in collaboration with
appropriate local authorities.
working with MOE towards national standards in non-formal
upgrading the standard of Tagnbe Agriculture School with the
help of SOA at the Alafua campus.
Ms Teena Balter, Student Officer, NZODA
Mr Steve Hogg, Director AusAID
Mr Carlos Simarro, Representative, French Government
The purpose of New Zealand's aid programme was to achieve lasting
improvements in the living co~lditions of present and future generations of
people living in developing countries, especially the poor. The key to the
achievement of this goal was in education. Ms Baker then highlighted the
guiding principles in New Zealand assistance to developing nations including
Vanuatu as: partnership responsibility; building capacity; sustainability;
reducing poverty; participation of all people in the developlnent process; and
involving the New Zealand community through sharing of expertise and
forging links. The New Zealand paper has been reproduced as Appendix 4.
New Zealand was committed to full participation by women in the
clevelopment process. To promote this, the New Zealand programme would
be supporting activities that would enhance the role and position of women
and increase their equitable participation in and benefits from development
activities. I11 the scholarships area, one of the key considerations would be
gender equity. On New Zealand's total aid progralnlne to Vanuatu, Ms
Balter said that education had do~ninated allocation in the past, and in the
1996197 year accounted for about 70% of New Zealand aid to Vanuatu. This
reflected the importance the Vanuatu government attached to the sector.
Of the total NZ aid to education, a large proportion was cliannelled to
scholarships for overseas study. Of the 100 ni-Vanuatu students currently on
study awards, the majority were studying in regional institutions. This trend
would continue into the future with 24 new awards earmarked for study at
regional institutions compared to only seven for New Zealand. This change
had been necessary due to two main factors; cost effectiveness of regional
institutions, and appropriateness of the training they offered. For the future,
New Zealand envisaged a continuation of the present trend with education
winning the lion's share of NEODA resources to Vanuatu. M s Baker also
said that funding for the USP Foundation Progra~n~ne
would be phased out
over the next three years, as Government wanted preparation for tertiary
education to be concentrated under the bursary programme taught at Malapoa
and Matavulu colleges.
Mr Steve I-Iogg of AusAID presented Australia's perspective as a
donor to Vanuatu and USP. He said that the timing of the seminar was
fortuitous given the recent endorsement of Vanuatu's Comprehensive
Reform Programme. The need to ilnprove the education system was one of
the clear messages that emerged out of the CRP. The seminar therefore
provided an opportunity for Vanuatu and USP to assess future needs and
discussed ways to improve the education system. As with New Zealand,
education was a key priority in Australia's aid programme to the region. The
key principle governing educational aid were: access, equity, quality,
relevance, and effectiveness. It was of interest to note that these were also
identified in the CRP as areas that needed improvement. The Australian
paper has been reproduced as Appendix 5.
On Australia's relationship with USP, Mr Hogg said Australia was a
major donor to the University. He said Australia recognised and supported
the unique role of USP in serving the needs of the member countries. It was
Australia's aim to continue this relationship into the foreseeable future for it
was pleased and satisfied with progress and developme~lt
USP had made in
providing appropriate levels of education and training for the Pacific. The
seminar was also informed that AusAID had initiated a tracer study to
ascertain tlie whereabouts of ni-Vanuatu funded under Australian aid.
Mr Hogg then identified some key issues and constraints that had
hampered Australia's ability to respond effectively to the educational needs
of Vanuatu. These were: political instability; broad capacity constraints in
the public and private sector; the lack of an education strategy to direct
donors' assistance; the lack of human resource development priorities; and an
appropriate budget commitlnent to the education sector which included
meeting obligations for donor-financed activities and their on-going costs.
Australia's aid activities, according to Mr Hogg, were directed mainly
towards ilnproving the level of education, skills and capacity in Vanuatu. 111
conclusion, Mr Hogg identified four areas where USP could focus its
attention in the future. These included distance education, gender and rural
equity, donor consultations, and the secondary teachers training project.
Mr Silnarro made a short verbal presentation on behalf of the French
Govertlment. Like the other donors, France considered education as a key
area for funding. As such, training of teachers at all levels and in all types o f
institutions was of vital importance. Without this development, for example,
progress at the Vanuatu Teachers College would be difficult. The policy was
to enable more
to gain further training although it was also accepted
that not only universities could provide university education, other kinds o f
institutions were equally viable. "The CRP was perceived as a global
approach to current problems", Mr Simarro said. He said France saw the
need for a well functioning national education policy as a vital requirement
for national development. At the same time, specialist areas particularly
appropriate for Vanuatu should not be ignored, for example, agriculture and
technical trade areas. In conclusion, he said that France favoured greater
consultation and co-operation between USP and the French University of
Pacific. The Chairperson thanked all three presenters for their contributions.
I-Ie then invited conllnents from the floor.
PUBLIC FORUM DISCUSSION
62. The first intervention acknowledged the level of assistance to USP
fiotn donors, especially Australia and New Zealand. He noted with concern,
however, that support for the Foundation Progra~ntne
would be phased out by
1999. He would like to know what sort of arrangements could be made for
students who normally came through this route, and whether the Bursary
institutions had the capacity to cater for this larger number of students who
previously benefited from Foundation Studies. In reply, one of the presenters
said that this was a very good question. The Vanuatu Government was not
focussing on this potential problem. The phasing-out of the Foundation
Programme had been made known to the Government 18 months previously.
The challenge for all Pacific nations was to address the probletn of the
growing number of students wanting tertiary education. The role of USP atld
INTV, for instance in short-term and technical training, needed to be looked
at. There was also an unrealistic expectation that donors would continue to
award scholarships without limit. There was a pressing need for directioll in
policy making, especially in regard to long term manpower planning.
The Government's intention was to increase the Year 13 Bursary
intake, it was clarified. However, Foundation Studies was an important
alternative and ways of providing direct assistance to support the
continuation of this programme were still needed. T h e donors reaffirmed the
view that they did not want to undermine the Government's responsibility t o
develop their policy for Year 13. Another speaker thanked the presenters and
agreed that it was certainly not the donor's responsibility to chart the future -
that was the duty of the Government.
It was also Government's
responsibility to budget for the future. The key point was to draw u p plans in
education that were viable in the long term. There needed t o be close co-
operation between donors and govern~nent
concerning priorities in the CRP.
The government needed to "put its resources where its mouth is". Donors
resources and funding should not be wasted. It was observed that results did
not inatch the generous donor input into the education sector, and Vanuatu
needed to exa~nine
this failing on the part of government planning.
The emphasis by donors on gender equity was raised by one of the
participants. It was pointed out that children in Vanuatu were selected o n
academic merit at all levels without regard to gender. In support, a question
was posed to donors as to what they thought should be done on behalf of
gender equity that Vanuatu was not already doing? In reply, the AusAID
representative said that they would not disadvantage males in offering
opportunities for women, and merit was still the basis for selection. Vanuatu
needed to use its resources in order to improve the quality of life.
The last speaker expressed a concern on the lack of scholarship awards
for junior secondary teachers who wanted to pursue degree studies but did
not have the entry requirement, yet had long years of teaching experience. It
was pointed out that tertiary institutions entry require~nents
had to b e fulfilled
and three separate bodies were involved in making decisions regarding the
award of scholarships - scholarship board, aid donors, and tertiary
STUDENTS PRESENTATION: Mr Chris Garoles
66. The statement on behalf of students was made by Chris Garoles, USP
Extension representative. Mr Garoles said he wished to share the concerns of
extension students, who did not have the privilege that Laucala Carnpus full-
time students have. He presented the following recommendations:
More degree courses be offered through extension with the
possibility of completing a Bachelor Degree programme through
In order for the suggestion made above to be successful, students
would have to have access to more face to face teaching.
Students should have access to visual as well as audio teaching
Establishment at Centre level of a Learning Support Network,
from a range of groups of subject experts.
Computing Services should be easily accessible to all students
enrolled at Elnalus Campus.
in science laboratory facilities.
Provision for hostels for extension students.
A strong and active Alumni Association in Vanuatu.
USP be requested to seriously consider the necessity of
improving its student co~nmunity
service facilities at the E~nalus
Cainpus -for example, recreation facilities such as a gym and a
health service which includes extension students.
PUBLIC FORUM DISCUSSION
The first speaker said that while the recolninertdations may b e
justifiable, in reality how could extension students complete degree studies
from rural areas?
Cost would be a problem and h e suggested the
establishment of a national scholarship awards scheme for such students.
The USP Centre Director noted that the Australian Government had made
available an allocation of $40,000 a year to support disadvantaged students
like those mentioned above. In 1996, 18 students' course fees were paid for
from this money, and in 1997, 35 students had part of their fees paid for from
this allocation. The New Zealand Government had offered to assist female
students while the Australian Government had also proposed t o assist the
Sub-centre in Santo for a full-time Foundation Programme.
Commenting on the reco~nmendations made by the student
representative, the Centre Director said that while he felt they were quite
valid, young people had become used to being subsidised. USP needed t o
operate on a self-funding basis and students had to recognise that t o expect
USP to provide extension students with hostel acco~nlnodation was not
feasible. Law students were full-time students and still had to pay for their
and for cleaning services. This was the reality, but
the recommendations made were still welcomed. On the establish~nent
o f a n
Alu~nni Association, it was pointed out that this was up to students
themselves to organise. The Chairman then thanked everyone for their
The following problem areas had been identified during the seminar as
requiring urgent attention by all parties interested and concerned about the
development of education in Vanuatu. They are not presented in any order of
Access, quality, relevance, management, and financing of
Long-term manpower survey for all sectors.
Training of quality trainers.
Co-ordination between the various post-secondary to
institutions be encouraged, promoted and implemented.
Development of adult continuing education programme
targeting the grassroots.
Closer links between education and training and the labour
Development of an appropriate curriculum.
- for untrained primary school teachers.
Development of training programmes to address the needs of
school leavers especially those leaving a t the end of years 6
Further training and retraining of the public and private
Standardisation of all vocational training centres.
Focus to be directed towards the education and training
needs of the private sector as highlighted in the CRP.
Need for physical facilities.
Design and co-ordination of courses in school
administration, planning and management for principals of
primary and junior secondary schools.
Assessment and improvement of the management of
extension studies being taken by primary school teachers.
Assistance in researching and developing the pre-school
sector in areas such as curriculum and teacher training.
A tracer study on the whereabouts of graduates supported
by education and training awards since 1986.
Research in appropriate areas of concern t o the V a n u a t u
community, e.g. small business.
Development and implementation of p r o g r a m m e s directed
towards those students who could not progress f u r t h e r in
Support for strengthening of national institutions s u c h a s
Increase in the number of extension courses with t h e
possibility of completing more degree a n d diploma
programmes through this mode.
Establishment of a research a n d consultancy a r m of the
Co-ordination of post-graduate p r o g r a m m e s according t o
demands and available funding.
Implementation of a needs assessment survey.
Closer linlts between education a n d training institutions a n d
Articulation between the secondary a n d post-secondary
sectors is unclear.
planning and evaluation of
performance in the sector.
Development of proper communication a n d information flow
between post-secondary institutions.
Avoidance of duplication of efforts a n d maximum co-
Increasing gender equity.
More effective links between Government a n d the private
Legislation to establisl~
a national post-secondary education
and training framework. (This f r a m e w o r k should include
clear educational and management structures, skills levels
and allow for articuiation a n d accreditation).
Acceptance of Bislama a s a medium of teaching in tlie post-
secondary sector, especially in practical classes.
More careful consideration by USP of t h e needs of
Address the needs of the 80% of p r i m a r y students wlio
dropped out of schools for whatever reason.
(36) Improved training of trainers.
(37) Refocus of priorities in education.
(38) More access to vocational training, particularly for rural
(39) Review of tlie primary school curriculum.
(40) More direct links be established between RTCs and INTV.
(41) Identification of measures to bridge the gap between the
unemployed rural youth and formal vocational training.
(42) Introduction of certificate courses in community
development relevant to the needs of Vanuatu.
(43) Facilitation of tlie offering of business courses in
collaboration with appropriate local authorities.
(44) Collaboration with the MOE towards national standards in
(45) Upgrading the standard of Tagabe Agriculture School with
the help of SOA at the Alafna campus.
Professor Lynch thanked the donors who funded the seminar, the
Chairman of the Planning Committee for organising the programme, the
presenters, and all who contributed to the discussions. The main aim of the
seminar, he said, had been to see how USP could improve its services and
functions. Recommendations of the Vanuatu seminar will be co-ordinated
with recommendations from other national seminars in USP member
countries. Finally, he acknowledged that many of the comments made at the
seminar had been very helpful and relevant to key issues for the development
of education in Vanuatu. A very positive outcome had been the expression
of awareness that different educational institutions should be communicating
with each other on a regular basis. Professor Lynch then officially declared
the seminar close.
1 1 July 1997
A T T A C H M E N T A
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH P A C I F I C VANUATU
STRATEGIC PLANNING SEMINAR I N EDUCATION
EMALUS CAMPUS, P O R T VILA,
WEDNESDAY 09 JULY - THURSDAY 10 J U L Y 1997
DAY 1. WEDNESDAY 09 JULY 1997
MC: Mr Thomas Marakitere
Director General of Education
Hon. Louis Carlot
Minister of Education, Youth & Sport
Vote of Thanks
Professor John Lynch
Public Sector Paper
Senior Planning Officer
National Planning Office
Public Forum Discussion
Post Secondary Institutions Presentation
(1) Mr Carlos Simarro
French Technical Adviser. INTV
(2) Dr Bill Vistarini
Team Leader, Aus AID Institutional
Strengthening Project, INTV
Public Forum/Panel Discussions
DAY 2. THURSDAY 10 JULY 1997
MC: James Toa
Statement: Ms Leah Lloringmal
Proviseur Adjoint LAB
Mr Abel Nako
Director, Vanuatu Rural Development Training
Centres Association (VRDTCA)
Public Forum Discussion
Summary of NGO's & Private Sector
Chief Executive, Vanuatu Chamber of
Commerce and Trade
Statement: Lycee LAB
(1) Etienne Waremavute
Coordinator of CSF
(2) Leah Lloringmal
Deputy Principal, LAB
Statement from Donors:
(1) Teena Baker
Student Liaison OfJicer, NZODA
(2) Mr Steve Hogg
(3) Mr Carlos Simarro (on behalf of Dennis
French Cultural Attache
Statement: Students and Parents of
Mr Chris Garoleo
USP Extension Student
Professor John Lynch
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC VANUATU
STRATEGIC PLANNING SEMINAR IN EDUCATION
EMALUS CAMPUS, PORT VILA
WEDNESDAY 09 JULY - THURSDAY 10 JULY 1997
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
1. Abel Nako
Director, Vanuatu Rural Training
2. Adeline Liu
President, Churches of Christ
3. Alan McPhail
Teacher, Malapoa College
4. Alison Taylor
In-Service Teacher Training
5. Anne Naupa
Deputy Principal, Malapoa College
6. Antoine Thyna
Director of Secondary Education
7. Bill Vistarini
Team Leader, AusAID Institutional
Strengthening Project, INTV
8. Bill Willie
Principal Training Officer,
Government Training Centre
9. Bob Loughman
Co-ordinator, Rural Skills Training
10. Carlos Simarro
French Technical Adviser, INTV
11. Cathy Solomon
National Co-ordinator, Vanuatu
National Council of Women
12. Chris Garoleo
Representative, USP Extension
13. Craig Martin
14. David Smith
Adviser, National Planning Office
15. Eloi Leye
Assistant Director, D.E.C.
16. Eric Natuoivi
Principal, Basic Education Training
17. Etienne Warimavute
Co-ordinator of CSF, Lycee LAB
18. Francois Aissav
19. George Maniuri
Director, National Planning Office
20. Gilbert Mevmar
Second Secretary of Education
2 1. Hanington Alotoa
Loans Manager, Vanuatu
22. Hanson Mata Kalkot
23. Harold Qualao
Engineering Consultant, Private
24. Henry Vira
Director, FSP Vanuatu
25. Hollingsworth Ala
Senior Assistant Registrar, Emalus
26. Jacques Sese
Director-General of Education
27. James Toa
National Planning Office
28. Jean-Pierre Nirua
Director, USP Centre
29. Jesse Dick
Interim Co-ordinator, PIanning and
Impletnentation Unit, Ministry of
30. Jimmy Mangawai
Senior Labour Officer, Labour
3 1. John Keni
USP Law student's representative
and President of USP Student's
Association, Emalus Campus
32. John Niroa
Principal, Malapoa College
3 3 . Jordie McKenzie
Chief Executive, Chamber of
Comtnerce and Trade
34. Kalmele Matai
Principal Education Officer,
Ministry of Education
35. Leah Lloringlnal
Deputy Principal, Lycee Louis
Antoine de Bouganville
36. Lennox B. Vuti
Deputy General Manager, National
Bank of Vanuatu
37. Li Ligo Yusu
Second Secretary, Chinese
38. Neil Stevens
39. Pastor Alan Navuki
Member of Parliament
40. Professor John Lynch
Pro Vice-Chancellor, Ernalus
41. Roger Southern
AusAID Project, INTV
42. Rufino Paneda
Extension Lecturer, USP
43. Sandra Rennie
Gender Equity Specialist, AusAID
44. Savenaca Siwatibau
Pro Chancellor and Head of
45. Sethy Regenvanu
46. Steve Hogg
47. Steven Garae
Co-ordinator, Student Services,
48. Teena Baker
Student Officer, New Zealand High
49. Thomas Marakitere
Senior Education Officer
Secondary, Ministry of Education
Republic of Vanuatu
PAPER PRESENTED TO THE VANUATUIUSP
EDUCATION STRATEGIC PLANNING SEMINAR
Coordinated by the Vanuatu's Ministrv & Department of
Education, in collaboration with the Universitv of the South
Pacific, Suva and USP Emalus Campus.
Prepared by: James N. TOA
Humall Resource Development Unit
National Planning Office
USP Emalus Camnus. Port Vila
VANUATU STRATEGIC PLANNING SEMINAR.
PtJI3LIC SECTOR PAPER
T1ri.s paper, like the other papers, was developed with the ho/)e to
o~rtline some of the key issues that could assist meet the o1~jcctive.s of'
t11i.s workshop - assessing the capacioj of the University c?f the S ( ~ ~ i t h
f'ac$c (LISP) in responding to the &
and priorities ofthe regioti~l
U$orttmately Vanuatu has never carried ozit an)) specific a.s.scsLs~nent
011 the efectiveness of USP on the economy, even an internal priorily
trrrining needs assessnent f o r t u r e manpower. I-lo~vever thc g e n e r ~ l
&cars or? these spec@ training and manpower needs can be clnalyscd
fiat?? DP3, DP4 (draz) and the Comprehensive Reform Pro,y~*c~d
Vanuatu will only be able to provide a clear assessmetit qf 17ecd.s o17Iy
orice it has developed its Human Resources Development Plon as
stated and emphasised by the CRP.
This paper oldy form the basis for discussion as it is an L I I I N I J ~ S ~ .
o ~f tlie
isszres czrrreiitly affecting the specific topics ns o~itlinctl ill /he
fimiework of the Strategic Paper.
Please take note that this paper, being part of tlie vnriozrs /1c1/3rl-'"':r
reqzrested by the Planning Committee, was drajed to enable
discussions and eventually recommendations from the Sernitiut.. This
peeper, especially the recommendations may not necessnrily be the vielo
of the government but the presenter.
Education is the key to development, the means to good IlenlL,
I CRP Document was endorsed i n P o r t V i l a , J u l y 1 9 9 7
economic security, wise use of natural resources, and for acquiring the
capacities which can be used in cultural, social or political activities.
Vanuatu's long term educational goal is for ten years of high quality
education for the majority of children, while the short term aim is to
improve the quality of schooling, and for the sustainable expansion of
the system. However, the environment in which these goals must be
achieved is unique, including inore than 105 vernaculars, two official
languages and one national language; schools scattered over more than
60 islands; high rates of population growth, and rapid urban drift. The
low level of formal schooling of the majority of the adult of populatioll
indicates that opportunities for continuing education for this group are
also a priority.
The formal school system consists of six years of primary education,
four years in junior secondary and two to three years of senior
Progress after primary schooling is by
examination passes, and there is extreme competition for the very
limited number of secondary school places.
The situation of the education system, both formal and informal, in
Vanuatu today is such that there is need for some strategic assessment
to the system for improvement. We may wish to look at our needs as
issues currently hindering the effectiveness of our education system.
Five important issues are stated in the Comprehensive Reform
Progrnmme (CRF') document. These are i) Access ii) Financing of
Education iii) Quality iv) Relevance of education and training, and v)
Management. Options for considerations were also given towards
Primary school access is reasonable but requires continual rapid growth
to keep up with school age population growth of 4.5% per year. While
primary school enrolment has much improved, many of these schools
are small and isolated in outer island locations, and are therefore very
expensive both to keep and to service. Rationalising primary school
facilities so as not to place young children in isolated comtnunities at
a disadvantage is a continuing challenge to the Government. Primary
school enrolment by regions is shown in Table 1. Many of those
catering for Grades 1 to G function under difficult situations
characterised by isolated and small communities, lack of physical
opportunities. These are exacerbated by the insistence of communities
to establish separated schools for reasons of religion, or language (i.e.
Francophone or Anglophone).
Table 1: Total Number of Primary Enrolments by Province and
Controlling Authorities, 1996.
1 3 8 5 7 1
Source: School Statistics, School Mapping & Statistics Unit, Department of Education,
In many rural locations, untrained teachers had to be recruited and the
1994 Statistics Report of the Department of Education showed some
24 percent of primary school teachers were untrained.
The majority of Vanuatu young people leave school either at the end
of the sixth year, largely due to the lack of available places. Because
Vanuatu communities live in small isolated islands, it is necessary to
~ r o v i d e
secondary and tertiary education at central locations serving a
group of islands, which require boarding facilities that are expensive
to provide and maintain.
The pressure on the education system to provide at least primary
education for all children will continue to limit resources available for
education at higher levels.
The high growth rate of school-age
children is expected to continue over the next 10 to 15 years s o the
enrolments are expected to double by year 2010. Whether Govemlnent
services will be able to expand to lceep up with this rate of growth or
face reduced enrolment rates in the next decade and a half is uncertain.
USP in collaboration with Department ofEducation and En~alus
Campus to design and coordinate courses in School
Administration, Planning & Management for principals of
Primary and Junior Secondary Schools (equivalent to that
implemented in Kiribati.. .)
In collaboration with the Department of Education, assess and
improve the management of extension studies being carried ozit
by Primary School teachers.
USP in collaboration with the Primary Unit coordinate the
Commzinity Support in Education Program as is implemented by
other South Pac$c Cozintries.
That USP in collaboration with the governn~ent, local and
international NGOs, assist in the researching and developn~ent
of the Pre-School Sector.
Serious areas of concern are i)
curriculum, ii) materials (teacher/kids) and iii) teacher
At the end of Grade 6 pupils sit for admission to limited places in
some 39 secondary schools scattered through the islands. Of these, 22
are Government owned, 11 are govern~nent assisted and 6 are private.
Most of these schools offer Grades 7 to 10 to just over 5,000 pupils
served by just under 300 teachers giving a low student to teacher ratio
of 17. Only two institutions, Malapoa and Matevulu offers Yr. 13
Bursary. Government efforts to expand facilities at this level resulted
in the intake of pupils leaving Grade 6 rising from 20 percent in 1994
to 25 percent in 1995. Generally only about 1 in 3 grade 6 leavers go
on to grade 7. Table 2 shows junior secondary school enrolment by
region in 1995. There are 17 Anglophone, 12 Francophone, and the
rest are bilingual schools.
The formal school system currently provides higher secondary
education for Anglophone pupils tlrough four schools and one for
Francophone pupils. In 1995 some 507 pupils were enrolled at higher
secondary level. Entry to senior secondary schools is by qualifying
examination at the end of Grade 10. At the end of the 1994/1995
school year 928 candidates competed for the 488 available places at
Grade 11 resulting in a 48 percent leaving schools at the end of Grade
Table 2: Junior Secondary School enrolments, 1995
Pupils per Teachers
Source: Ministry of Education, Statistical Digest 1995.
Vanuatu's secondary school system includes 14 vocational/tecl~nical
schools of which 10 are entirely private, 2 are Government assisted
and 2 are Government owned. These schools in 1994 enrolled a total
of 229 male and 189 female pupils. Only I out of every 3 of the 3 3
teachers engaged for these vocational schools is trained.
However, the training of training and re-training of teachers is a crucial
matter to the education system. In 1994 only 24% of primary school
teachers were trained. In vocational/technical schools only 11 of 33
teachers are trained. Secondary schools are far better with around 90%
of teachers trained (Table 3) although Inally are expatriates in senior
secondary. The Full Time Foundation Studies Programme (FFSP)
Review in 1996 indicated that some ni-Vanuatu teachers teaching the
Year 13 Bursary needed to complete an appropriate level of
qualification to teach Yr. 13.
Distribution of Secondary Teachers by Province, by
Source: School Statistics, Statistics Unit, Department of Education
That USP and the Department of Education, through the
Secondary Unit, coordinate extension studies for those teachers:
who have never completed their studies
who wishes to undertake another post g~aacluate
study that will assist improve hidher capability
Predicting nlanpower is currently an ~ S S L I ~
of each organisation as of
the government. Several experts have been hired by the governtnent
to produce a guideline in this area but never materialised. Therefore
there is not yet at present a clear analysis that could indicate to the
government and other related authorities a predicted mallpower as
required by the economy. Nevertheless, with the smallness in nature
of Vanuatu's economy, it is obvious to say which sectors of
development lack qualified manpower. This has been discussed in
DP3, DP4 (draft) and the CRP. Several studies such as Vanuatu
Economy by Dr J. all on^ and the recent ADB Study3 on Vanuatu
has made clear observations in this matter.
According to the general nature of Vanuatu's econoiny, the
Government's Scholarships Board begun considering placing training
priorities into specific technical fields such as in medicine, engineering,
law, environment etc ...
Vanuatu's DP4 stated that, and was fully supported by the CRP,
Vanuatu will move into the next period with the theme of "Private
Sector Led Growth". This clearly indicates that more training must be
emphasised for the private sector related fields;
accounting, management, business, bankinglcredit, tourism etc..
The National Planning Office, in conjunction with the Departlnent of
Public Service, Government Training Centre, the Training &
Scholarships Coordinating Unit (TSCU) and Labour Department have
embarked on developing for the first time a "Manpower Survey" (MS)
with basically the following objectives:-
To establish a reliable data-base which will be used to assess
Dr. J. Fallon. The Vanuatu Economy - Creating conditions f o r Sustained and
Broad Based Development, International Development Issue ~ 0 . 3 2 ,
3 Vanuatu - sconomic Performance, Policy and Reform Issues, Pacific Studies
Series, ADB, 1996.
manpower needs and requirements which will assist with a more
strategical policy in training needs and manpower to improve the
productivity and efficiency of the existing work-force.
. To assess the current level of training require~nents in the Public
Service by providing a co~nprehensive database that will meet
the immediate data needs of the Public Service Department
(PSD) and the NPO
It is envisaged that the analysis of the survey will form the basis of
assessing the strengths and weakness of the total labour force in the
government and other statutory bodies. I-Iowever, this does not cover
private sector and colnlnunity related organisations.
Parallel to this information, the CRP endorsed that the National
Planning Office, in conjunction with other government agencies,
private sector and NGOs, formulate a comprehensive human resource
development plan which will outline the human resources development
needs of Vanuatu, the Vanuatu Human Resource Development Plan4
(VHRDP). The VFIRDP will be developed as part of the proposed
Education Master Plan (EMP), a document that will provide a holistic
planning and development details for the future development oC
The range of posts filled by expatriates in the public sector in 1996,
for exalnple is summarised in Table 4. Most of the personnel, such as,
engineers, lawyers, and doctors take many years to train and are costly
to produce. The majority of ni-Vanuatu with necessary qualifications
for upper level of management and technical posts have gone through
the Anglophone school system. University training for inost of thein
has been obtained through Government scholarships in Australia, New
Zealand, and the University of the South Pacific (see table...). The
recent establishment of the French University in New Caledonia is yet
to have an impact on the number of Francophones trained for high
level administrative and professional responsibilities.
Comprehensive Reform Program Document, C h a p t e r 6 , p a r a g r a p h 6 . 0 5
Table 4 : Expatriate personnel in the public sector in 1996.
E c o n o ~ n i c
Advice & Finance
Media, Culture, Librarian
Teaching & Education
Army, Police, Fire
Source: National Planning Office Database
It is hoped that once the HRD Plan is in place, Vanuatu will then be
in a clear position to indicate what its future manpower requirements
The Training and Scholarships Coordinating Unit (TSCU) continues to
receive applications each year to an average of 350 plyr. Out of these,
just over 90 are able to obtain scl~olarships due to limited number of
scholarships available from the government5. With the situation at
which Vanuatu lack qualified and skilled manpower it is crucial that
Inore scholarships must be obtained to meet this high demand.
Current Scholarships are being offered by AusAID, New Zealand and
Commonwealth. French offers scholarships on an independent basis therefore data
is not clear to the central TSCU database.
Up until now, scholarships were mainly granted for formal education
on the basis of candidates' performance. Their choice of studies is
and the university
establishments talcing on scholarships students subsequently confirms
this. There is no condition or tie or contractual relationship binding
the students to the Government or the national education. Under the
freely granted scholarships, students were and still are perfectly at
liberty to chose whatever career they want.
Further training & retraining
Much of the manpower in both the government and private sector are
either unskilled or semi-skilled. There is a need for further training
and retraining. The governnlent must establish these training needs
according to the proposed HRD Plan.
It has become so comlnon that issue of further training and retraining
rests with the heads of the organisation as and when they consider
these particular training to be relevant.
The Public Service
Colnlnission meets to decide on all in-service training for all
government elnployees on the recommendation of the department
heads. The Vanuatu Government Training Centre offers Management,
Supervision, and other related organisational develop~nent Courses to
meet the needs of and irnprove the middle management capacities of
government departments, statutory bodies and private sectors.
That USP, in collaboration with the TCSU undertake a study on
graduates having had scholarships since 1986 and what has
become of them, which may in turn assist to assess the capacity
of USP graduates into the economy.
That USP re-consider lowering its funding criteria to provide
indigenous students from member countries which, among other
advantages will increase the number of students enrolling for
FINANCING OF EDUCATION
The Education S y s t e m receives its funding assistance through both the
normal government grallt and through aid development funds. The
Parliament's and Government's overall and increasing comlnitlnent to
education is illustrated by the funding that sector receives. The Budget
allocated 807 million vatu to education in 1990 representing over 16%
of the total Government Budget.
In 1995, Budget allocation to
Education had risen to 1,179 million vatu, and in 1996 to 1,285 nlillion
vatu, representing almost 20% of the total Budget. In addition, aid
funds to education amounted to 1,909 million vatu in 1995. This is
more than one third o f total external assistance to Vanuatu.
One of CRP's, m a j o r outlooks is the introduction of the "Programme
Budgeting Approach" ( J . Wilfred, 2 April 1997). This new approach
will mean that all departments of the government will consider
developing their b u d g e t to gather for a rolling three-year period and
not one year. This will take care of both their recurrent expenditures
and also for all projects that may be programmed for during the given
three-year period. It is in this very manner that our education system
will see itself programming its projects over a three year period and
not receiving projects a s they appear as is currently exercised.
Table 6: New Scholarships awards to USP by donor governments;
1994, 1995 and 1996.
Source: Training & Scholarships Coordinating Unit, 1997
Out of a total of 382 primary schools in 1996, 262 (69%) are
government owned, 77 (20%) are governlnelit assisted and 43 (1 1%)
private. Out of 39 secondary schools 22 owned by government, 11
government assisted, and 6 private. This is suinlnarised in Table 7.
Table 7: Share of Primary and Secondary Schools by Government,
Assisted (by Government) and Private.
Government . Government
Source: Stiltistique Scolaires, Annce 199G, Bureau des Statistiqoes et de la Carte
Scolaire, Department de I'Eclucation.
The system at present is such that it is difficult for the department of
education to anticipate the capacity of assistance the private sector may
anticipate each year. Private and community schools are established
whenever they wish depending on the need and support and
capabilities of the promoter or the conimunity.
According to the CRP, cost-sharing between government and private
sector must be encouraged. Port Vila, for example, already has several
private schools catering for different levels from pre-school to
secondary studies. It is vitally important that SSMU l l ~ i ~ s t
be aware of
all schools being established for ease of reference, database, and that
appropriate material and teacher support can be provided adequately.
According to SSMU, there are cases where conilnunity schools may
have been established about three months before they would have been
for~nally informed. Churches has an important role in education right
before independence until now, and could be encouraged to increase
their current services to tlie sector.
Private enterprises take part i n the training of our human resources
mainly through on the job training on recruitment and limy then send
them off to undertake inservice training either in-country or outside.
According to the Training & Scholarships Coordination Unit (TSCU),
there is no available inforlnatio~i that could clearly identify the
proportion of overseas training on private scholarships. The TSCU
only has data on those funded by the government.
Approximately 3,500 school leavers enter the labour market each year.
An average of 7 students graduated from USP each year. According
to the TSCU, USP graduates generally entered into the jobs that are
related to their fields of studies. Those that were doing illservice
training, tend to be recruited back into their organisations.
The 1994 scholarship list (as shown in table 8) shows that boys
dominate the fields of engineerindtechnical, agriculture and medicine,
and while girls tend to congregate in business/secretarial, teaching,
medical support services, and nursing. It is envisaged that the I-IRD
PLan will benefit both boys and girls and the country in general by
better guiding them to pursue careers in fields most suited to their
natural talents rather than those imposed by society based on their
gender and wishes.
Table 8: Gender distribution of overseas scholarships (ongoing), 1994
Area of Study
Arts and Education
4 (in computing)
Cont'd Table 8
Area of Study
Land Survey and
C o ~ n ~ n u n i t y
% of total scholarships
Source: Scholarships office lists.
It is envisaged that the VHRDP will enable the government t o decide
on training needs according to the needs of public sector as much as
the private sector. It is envisaged that with this plan, scholarships will
be advertised and provided strictly according to the prograrnrned
recruitment plans of each departments wl~ich will contribute to the
future socio-economic development of Vanuatu.
All departments have ben encouraged by the Department of Public
Service to establish for each one Corporate Plans that should outline
their mission statements, objectives and strategies to meet their goals
in a prograln~nable manner, and to be included in this same doculnent,
a clear and long-term Staff Training, Development & Recruitment
Plan. This was again reiterated during a joint meeting by the Public
and the Training & Scholarships Boards (TSB) on
13 April 1997 and it was decided and agreed that the PSC follow up
and elnphasise on this issue.
There has never been any study to analyse the effectiveness of whether
USP graduates have been placed in positions appropriate to their
qualifications and whether they have remained in those positions.
That USP carry out a tracer study on ni-Vanuatu gradziates
since 1986 to assess the capacity of students being einployed
into organisations related to their field of studies.
That the Department of Education in collaboration with TSCU
establish a career advisory Unit at the Depnrtn~ent to ns.sist
achieve the objective as indicated in 1) above.
EMPLOYMENT REOUIREMENTS OF THE PRIVATE
Vanuatu embarked on independence with a level of ll~llnan resource
developlnent that was remarkably low and ill-equipped to support
strong economic growth, thus the dominant feature of the human
resources scene in Vanuatu is the low level of skilled developunent in
the workforce. A feature of the 1989 census was estimated that 90
percent of the economically active population have no education at all
or primary education (Republic of Vanuatu 1991a). Reflecting these
basic deficiencies there is a chronic shortage of upper secondary
graduates and ni-Vanuatu people with high level professional and
In Vanuatu 80 percent of employment and econolnic activity is
represented by the agricultural subsistence sector. A significant long-
term development problem facing Vanuatu is how to transform the
subsistence colnmunities with their rich traditional and cultuml values,
into a more commercially orientated sector if the econolnic aspirations
of the population are to be achieved.
As far as training for the socio-economic develop~llellt of this country
is concerned, both sides of the coin must be addressed, the Formal
Education System and the Non-Formal Education programmes that are
present as well as those that are lacking. Vanuatu is a11 agricultural
This means that the ecotlomy lllust be
decentralised to benefit also the 80% of the populatioil that are living
in the rural areas. Nevertheless, the level of skills that are prese~lt in
the rural areas among the indigenous ni-Vanuatu are still low to sustain
major agricultural and industrial developments.
According to a study carried out in 199G for the Department of
Industry and Trade, 90% of the small business owners are unqualified
but who may have been employed once as a shop assistant by another
businessman, for example a Chinese businessman. The most cotnlnon
mode of establishing a business is by direct "copy" fiom another
businessman (H. ~ l a t o a , ~
1996). Around 10% of business owners
would have completed Year 10. Vanuatu must look very seriously at
the training needs ni-Vanuatu small business owners require to
establish, improve and re-develop their businesses, such as the ability
to assess the viability of their businesses, ability to keep records, assess
the market, simple book keeping, pricing, and banking procedures.
There are on-going efforts to develop small and rural-based industries
and to bring more ni-Vanuatu into the business world. However,
success has been limited. A renewed effort will be inade under the
CRP, but with a changed strategic focus which will also see fornlal
training in business management and in vocational skills receive higher
priority, in consultation with the business co~nrnunity to ensure
In addition, the recently endorsed CRP (June 1997) and DP4 (still in
its preparatory stage) made a commit~nent that the next develop~nent
plan period must see Vanuatu through a period of "Private Sector
Growth". This means that the focus on develop~nent must be centred
around placing strategies and emphasis on private sector development.
Employtnent in the public sector represents about 40 percent of urban
with the remainder e~nployed in the c o ~ n ~ n e r c i a l
sector; that is, 12 percent of e~nploy~nent
in the economy at large. T h e
modern private sector thus represents a small segment of the
community. This provides a perspective to the nature of the issues and
problems. Within the modern business sector, ni-Vanuatu participatio~i
is very limited and the absence of statistics inakes definition difficult.
H. Alatoa, "Directory of Rural Business", 1996, Department of Industry.
The modern private sector is thus dominated by expatriate and non ni-
Vanuatu firms7. Data from the VNPF indicates that in 1995, 3,400
employers were registered8, and suggests that the size of the private
sector is small. Unfortunately, data on business registrations and
trends are no longer published due to the 1993 civil servants strike.
The Vanuatu Government tlrough its scholarships allocations has
recently placed a lot of emphasis on training that would relate to
private sector development, such as in Accounts, Economics, Business
Studies, Computer Studies, Banking, Commerce and so forth. Vanuatu
wishes to focus also on courses that would encourage students to build
within them the capability and drive to establish their own business on
a Inore modern scale. It h a s always been the attitude of graduates that
to return to Vanuatu only means to find a job with an organisation
(expatriate owned), rather than a drive to establish one, either be in one
of the two urban centres or more impoi-tantly within the rural
communities that could contribute to employment creation, provide
circulation of funds within the communities. This commitment could
also act as leverage and basis of attraction for other enterprises andlor
other development (donor) projects.
That USP through t h e national Chamber of Comnferce & Trade
provide researching assistance to improve the small business
sector of Vanuatu.
The manner of courses relating to private sector must be taught
with other specific additional courses that could provide
encouragement for graduates to gain commitment and establish
own enterprises on return.
USP to collaborate with Rural Business Development to
research and assess t h e capacity of needs that is present among
the rural business sector, and create training programmes for
Non ni-Vanuatu firms refer t o national but not indigenous establishments
The VNPF data includes non-operations business
this spec@c sector through its Continuing Education system and
any others that may be appropriate.
OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUTH
Youth is another group which has not being given the absolute chance
to contribute fully to development, or to share in the benefits
development brings. Youth groups are often most caught between the
old ways and the new, and for many the hture looks bleak.
Many school leavers do not have adequate or appropriate skills to
secure one of the few waged jobs available, and neither do they have
the skills for agricultural work or to explore alternative sustainable
livelihood options. An estimated 70% of youth commencing a life of
subsistence farming have only a primary school education, and this
group will have little opportunity to upgrade their skills because of the
limited number of non-for~i~al
training opportunities. Many ni-Vanuatu
youth face a future of unemployment and underemployment, ancl will
not have the chance to experience the discipline and dignity which
Out of 70 percent of young people leaving the education system at the
end of primary and junior secondary schools, the majority are absorbed
into rural sector without sufficient e~nployment skills. A few are sent
as private students either by parents or churches to secondary schools
in other countries. Others join the growing number of unemployecl
youth in the two urban centres of Port Vila and Luganville. About 15
Rural Training Centres (RTCs) run by church groups, local
communities, individuals and NGOs offer some forin of life skills
training to youths in rural areas. An attempt to assist coordinate the
effort of these RTCs saw the formation of the Vanuatu Rural
Develop~nent Training Centres Association (VRDTCA), which is
developing a core curriculum for its members.
commendable efforts are insufficient because more than 3,000 youths
leave school each year but Inally of them are under 15 years of age.
The vital role of non-fonnal education (NFE) for the majority of
school leavers in Vanuatu is yet to be fully recognised by the
Government. A recent workshop 011 NFE resulting in the invitation
from Government for a committee to draft an appropriate policy is to
be com~nended. Support for the ensuring policy should be assured,
given the urgency for meeting the need of the majority of Vanuatu's
Government departments and NGOs must be encouraged and supported
to initiate and develop appropriate non-formal educational prograln~ned
activities that may assist the existing programmes, s u c h as the RTCs,
in the wider development of the youth sector. Because of the few
opporti~nities that exists to absorb the number of youths that do not
proceed beyond Yr. 6 and Yr. 10, co~nmunity
such as the Pa~ticipatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), which is being
implemented by some government departments and local NGOs, Local
Area Development Council (LADC) initiated by the UNDP/Vanuatu
Government's VESHDP and many others must continue to exist, be
revised, and developed to involve youth participation in their own
That USP in collaboration with CYP develop training packages
spec$cally for conjdence building for the purpose of livelihood
and small business development, particularly in project planning
That USP through Emalus Campus and Santo Sub-Centr-e
facilitate youth training & development
ROLE OF POST-SECONDARY INSTITUTIONS.
Tertiary education in Vanuatu is offered through a range of institutions
specialised vocational schools for nurses, agriculture, police and
the Vanuatu Teachers' College.
7 Technical and vocational centres cater for a total of 81 1
students (1995), of which 4 are managed by church
. the University of the South Pacific (USP) offers a range of
courses to just under 600 part time students froin its two local
. a handfi~l of privately operated vocational scl~ools in Luganville
and Vila cater nlainly for the modern sector's secretarial and
middle-level accouliting needs.
colnmon and biggest post-secondary institution in Vanuatu
is the Institute Nationale Technologie de Vanuatu (INTV), a dual mode
teaching institution. The Marine Training School now includes pre-sea
courses for ratings in addition to the Mechanic I and 11, Mate I and I1
and grade 5 Master and Engineer courses already running.
Govern~nent does not have plans yet to establish new post-secondary
institutions apart from the existing ones, except to review, improve and
expand the existing system where appropriate. For example, INTV has
begun to introduce courses in touris~n development and hotel
management in response to the requirements of the expanding tourisrn
AusAID will begin this year with onc of the biggest
assistance into the human resources sector for this nation by upgrading
the INTV. This will include both the academic and physical upgrading
of the institute.
USP plays an important role as a post secondary institution by offering
a range of extension courses through the Prelitninary, Full Time
Foundation Studies, selective degree and other extension programs, for
those who would not be able to continue directly to do undergraduate
studies. USP also offers other courses through the Summer School and
Continuing Education Programs.
That USP recognises Vanuatzr's national technical institution
(INTV) through a formal arrangement and assist in any
undertaking (technical subjects) that will support, beiieJit and
students (1995), of which 4 are managed by church
the University of the South Pacific (USP) offers a range of
courses to just under GOO part time students from its t w o local
a handful of privately operated vocational schools in Luganville
and Vila cater mainly for the modern sector's secretarial and
middle-level accounting needs.
The most colnlnon and biggest post-secondary institution in Vanuatu
is the Institute Nationale Technologic de Vanuatu (INTV), a dual nlocle
teaching institution. The Marine Training School now includes pre-sea
courses for ratings in addition to the Mechanic I and 11, Mate I and 11
and grade 5 Master and Engineer courses already running.
Government does not have plans yet to establish new post-secondary
institutions apart from the existing ones, except to review, improve and
expand the existing system where appropriate. For example, I N T V has
begun to introduce courses in tourisln development a n d hotel
management in response to the requirements of the expanding tourism
AusAID will begin this year with one of the biggest
assistance into the human resources sector for this nation by upgrading
the INTV. This will include both the academic and physical upgracling
of the institute.
USP plays an important role as a post secondary institution by offering
a range of extension courses through the Preliminary, Full Time
Foundation Studies, selective degree and other extension programs, for
those who would not be able to continue directly to do undergraduate
studies. USP also offers other courses throug11 the Summer School ancl
Continuing Education Programs.
That USP recognises Vanuatzr's national technical institzrtion
(INTV) through a formal arrangement and assist in any
undertaking (technical subjects) that will support, benefit and
improve the activities in technical and vocational training. This
is to facilitate and formalise the link envisaged with the RTCs,
INTV and even any regional technical institutions in the region,
That vocational/short-term training be coordinated through the
Ernalus Campus calling on spec@ topics that may conzpliment
with the existing post secondary institutions, such as in
agriculture, marine, business, computer, NFE, credit ... etc.
As referred to in the paper by INTK..
INTEREST OF PARENTS AND STUDENTS
It is the parents' primary objective that their children complete their
study and be employed for an income. The selection of training
courses for a future career may only be considered during hisll~er Yr.
11-13, and while doing post-secondary studies at USP. Sonle may
think seriously about this inipoltant decision while doing their
undergraduate studies. Therefore the interest of parents and students
may not be as demanding as that of the government for the future of
its manpower, to effectively manage this country according to its
Among the specific recommendations outlined in the Paper by parents
and students, the Government in this paper wishes to suggest the
USP and TCSU to jointly coordinate a "Cnreer-talk Progrant"
on the context of what courses are oflered at USP (and other
institutions) and what will be the likelihood needs of the country
in the next 5-10 years (when they would have graduated). This
may assist guide the minds of students while at the earlier stage.
This could be done through the media and at all Senior
Secondary Schools plus the two USP Centres. A special video
cassette (maintained by all Junior Sec. Schools) outlining such
highlights will be useful and very rewarding.
Coordinate as in 1) above to all parents associations in the
communities, where possible, possibly through the Provincial
Education Oflces and Provincial Governments.
Discuss periodically with Provincial Governments the jilture
needs of the human resources for their sustainable socio-
economic development and relate these needs to USP through
the Ministry of Education which is n inember of the USP
That the degree courses offered through extension be revised
and increased with the possibility of coinpleting Diploma and
Degree Programs through extension. These courses mzmt be
centred arozrnd the immediate needs of the CRP (Public Sector
and Economic Reform).
According to the Govemmetit of Vanuatu, these is a great need for
courses that may assist improve the credit stn~cture, s y s t e ~ n and
facilities of the country. This is in order to develop the business
conimunity, which is in line with the CRP, and it will no doubt have
an obvious impact on our cornlnunity developlnent through slnall
While USP provides acaderrlic courses in tliis relatecl field, the right
credit courses must be addressed with equal emphasis in tieveloping
graduates an attitude to take part and compete in the business worlcl.
This sector is currently considered as one of the stepping stones to the
livelihood of our people, if not business alone.
The CRP took note of the excellent contribution of the Vanuatu Credit
Union League and the recently established VANWODS Project9
(similar to WOSED in Fiji), still in its pilot stage, but modelled on the
Grameen Bank, which makes very small business loans to women.
That USP, through its Emalus Campus coordinate short term
training in credit and possibly merge this with its book-keeping
courses during the Summer School Programs. Target Oriented.
That a cert$cate in business studies/managernent, to be merged
with credit procedures, project planning and management be
offered through extension to assist the INTV in this sector.
While USP offers to around 600 students in both centres, it is
important for USP to review the effectiveness of the programs offered
and analyse whether these are really meeting the needs of the country
and more particularly their contributing factor to the economy. The
reasons behind the hindrance of preliminary, foundation, and degree
students not continuing their university entrance qualifying studies
must be addressed. A studylsurvey must be carried out to address the
reasons for their failure.
It may be an area that USP must feel committed to undertake. Not to
establish courses and hope that it is in the best interest of the countries,
but do regular survey to monitor the effectiveness of these programs.
USP is an academic and research institution which should be able to
initiate and invest in such researches for the benefit and improvement
of its programs.
Out of this study, USP may perhaps be able to observe other needs that
could be addressed while using the existing facilities at its maximum.
VANWODS is a Vanuatu Government/UNDP Project following the Grameen Bank
which was formed in Bangladesh and has been a very successful provider of very
small business loans to rural people -
90% women -
who assume group
responsibility for repayment. Defaults are rare.
For example, as discussed earlier, revise and re-develop the summer
school and continuing education programs to meet the current and
h t u r e needs of the economy.
With the above situation, we would like to adhere that the 1996 Full
Time Foundation Studies Program Review has been carried out
specifically to review the effectiveness of the Program its impact on
the economy, and its relevant recommendations be considered for
That all Extension Programs at USP Emalus Campus be
reviewed, improved and provided so as to meet the demand and
priority needs of the country.
That the 1996 FFSP Review be implemented by the Emalz~s
Campus in close collaboration with TSCU and other government
authorities to address the priority recommendations as stated by
More degree courses ofered through extension with the
possibility of completing a bachelor degree program through
That a system be put in place to assist those who have not
completed their qualifications do so through extension.
Researcll and Consnltancy.
That Emalus Campus in collaboration with USP establish a
research and consultancy arm of the Campus that will have the
consultations and coordinating workshops (contracting out) as
they see fit both for Vanuatu and the region.
Areas that a r e ofirnnzedjate needs to be researched on are:
Private Sector & Small Business Development
Gender equality in education
Population plannirfg & sustainable developnqent
Communify development approaches
Adult L i t e r a c y
Distance & Adult Education
Non-Formal Education etc ...
Youth & Development
NGO/Government working relationships
Post Graduate P r o ~ r a m s .
USP in collaboration with Vanuatu Government coordinate post
graduate programs through its Emalus Campus according to
existing d e m a n d and available funding eg, MBA, Development
Studies, Educational Management and Planning &...The
capacity of these needs must be assessed according to the needs
to be o u t l i n e d in the HRD Plan.
POST SECONDARY EDUCATION
A Paper for: Strategic Planning Seminar for Vanuatu
Given the limited time available to prepare this paper consultation with
all components of the post-secondary sector has not been as
comprehensive as the writers would have liked.
The comments that follow reflect the perspective of educationalists at
Malapoa College, VTC, INTV and the Lycee, but inost comment is
flavoured by experience at INTV.
The points suggested by Dr Pa'o Luteru for discussion highlight a
number of challenges for the Vanuatu post-secondary education sector.
The following problems have to be addressed:
lack of any real capacity to predict inanpower needs.
paucity of links between education and training institutions
and potential employers, especially those in the private
sector. This also means that e~nployers have limited iilput
into the content, ~nethodology and location of training.
articulation between the secondary and post-secondary
sector is unclear. (It is not particularly clear within the
sector). This mean that there are few clear signposts or
pathways for students.
comprehensive planning for this sector has been less than
evaluation of the performance of the sector has been
planning for appropriate change has been hindered by poor
coinlnunication and lack of information.
responding to revised budgeting arrangements.
Given these concerns, this seminar is very timely. The issues raised
are highly significant for the effective planning and performance of
this sector. Before dealing with some of the issues suggested a
number of key threads will be discussed.
resource planning and education needs
Little work has been done in this area. Blanchet ill 1991 and I-Iennall
in 1995 ul1dettook some analysis of the local Labour Market, but
analysis was histofical with soliie comment on the current sitl~atioli.
There has been no predictive analysis. As a consequence, mucll post
secondary education planning has tended to develop as a result of:
historical factors, including tensions between Allglophone
and Francophone systems;
ad hot discussions between individual eclucational
administrators, teachers, advisers and members of thc
projections based on anecdotal information; and
pressureslinput from foreign donors.
In essence, this lack of planning has meant tliat the sector has been
supply driven and not driven by the needs of the local economy and
labour market. 4 s a consequence there has tended to be a ~iiismatcli
between the skills of graduates and the needs of local employers. 'I'his,
in turn, has limited employment for graduates and led to criticism of
the education system by potential employers.
This is particularly significant for INTV which s110~1lcl be at thc
forefront of responsive industry training, especially in the context of
the human resources requirements of the Government's Compreliensivc
Reform Program. There seems to be general agreement tliat,
Some of the Institute's courses are out of touch with the needs
of industry and graduates lack the basic skills required to take un
meaningful employment. (D. Chantrill, et al., Institutional
Strenethenintl Proiect for the Institut National de 'Technolorrie tle
Vanuatu (INTV1,March 1996, p.iii)
Other recent reports support this contention. In late 1996 Alfrecl Ilelm
Employers questioned about INTV had a very low opinion of its
output. (A. Helm, Vanuatu Financial Sector Traininby Unit:
Institutional Review, September, 1996, p. 15)
But he also acknowledged,
This is recognised by INTV and it is hoped that developments
over coming years will address this: INTV is also looking t o
develop stronger links with e~nployees so as to ensure the
relevance of its output.
Experience suggests that Helm's picture of INTV is too negative. In
recent months these have ben positive colnments from a number of
employers about the skills of former students and the willingness of
INTV to discuss and accoln~llodate employer needs.
Nevertheless negative perceptions are cornlnon and the haphazard
relationship with industry is frequently cited. For example in 1991
The INTV's relations with business circles also remain limited
and poorly organised. Relations with the private sector have
never been placed on a forlnal footing ... As a result, ties
established with local firms have been sporadic. They have been
based mainly on personal contacts established by teacliers and in
most cases have concerned only fsancophone companies. (G.
Blanchet, The Labour Market and the Vanuatu National Institute
of Technologb Islands/Australia Working Paper N o 91/2, 1991,
The problelns encountered by former INTV students in adjusting
to the working world derive less from the nlediuln of
colnmunication than from the lack of practical skills which
would enable them to make an immediate contribution.
(Blanchet, 1991, p.21)
There is clear agreement about the need to build on-going, fortnal
relationships with key industries in order to facilitate the transition
from institute to productive work and raise employer awareness about
the skills of INTV graduates.
(Although these assessments relate specifically to INTV, it would be
reasonable to assume that they also have relevance to other post
From an INTV perspective one solution would be the establishment of
Industry Training Advisory Committees (ITACS) and the for~nalising
of links between all organisations involved in training and
The following ITACS are recommended:
. Technical Trades;
Tourism and Hospitality;
Business and Computing.
The broad tasks of the ITACS would include:
establishing and maintaining close links between industry
and the INTV;
ensuring that appropriate pre-employment training is
available for all major industries;
providing industry input into curriculum content and
providing advice on the skills and level of skills required
by exit students;
encouraging access and equity for all competent students;
supporting the improvement of the skills profile of the
broad community, both for those in the workforce, those
seeking work and those preparing for work.
Each ITAC wouId include representatives from relevant industries, a
representative fsorn the Department of Labour and at least two
representatives from INTV, one of whom should be a specialist
It would also be important that information gleaned from such advisory
committees be shared across the sector. Perhaps a mechanism for the
sharing of this and other data within the sector should be established.
Financing of education within the post-secondary sector
In 1996 education was allocated 18.7% of national budget recurrent
expenditure. (Over recent years the average has been about 20%.)
Despite the Government's commitment to education it is difficult to
envisage an increase in education's share.
In addition the allocation to secondary and tertiary education has
dropped from 36.2% in 1994 to 18.8% in 1996. If this pattern
continues, expansion in the post-secondary sector will have to come
from increased efficiency or from funding fsom other sources,
including students' fees, external financial assistance and the private
sector. Fees were recently doubled at the senior secondary level. A
ful-ther increase might be difficult politically.
Donors have become increasingly concerned to target their aid. For
example, the Australian Government has targeted vocational education
and training in terms of support for French work in the upgrading of
INTV to establish competency based training (CBT) tightly linked t o
the needs of industry. The private sector would endorse this approach
and it may well form partnerships witli training institutions in the
development of the sector if the training provided nieets their needs.
Partnerships witli the private sector do need to be explored. Solile
possibilities could include:
. purchase of training by the private sector. This would
involve the development of fee-for-service programs or
modules specifically tailored for industry;
. joint delivery of training using, for example, skilled
technicians fsom the private sector or their facilities.
More training by INTV teachers should also be carried out
at the work site;
. expansion of current patterns of work experience into a
for~nalise apprenticeship systern.
It seems likely that increased external and private sector funding will
nudge vocational training away from supply-driven funding to training
driven by demand. This ineans that the sector will need to become
more flexible and responsive and, as a consequence, Inore autonomous.
The very recent proposal for changes to budgeting assangements for all
Government sectors (Jeffrey Wilfred, 2 April 1997) has clear benefits
in terms of triennial funding and planning. It also proposes a move to
output hnding suggesting that all government departments be funded
in terms of what they produce!
But there may also be one or two challenges. The paper introduces the
concept of 'net funding' which would mean that post-secondary
education ... fees but excluding tax receipts) and apply the
S U I ~ S
... to their own approved expenditure programs. In return
for this freedom, the Government will only fund the difference
between the approved gross appropriation and the agreed
estimate of departmental revenue.
As a sector, there is a need to consider the i~nplications o f these
budgeting proposals. For example, if INTV were to become llighly
entrepreneurial, selling many courses to the private sector and
increasing its income, there would be a corresponding decrease in
government allocations. There is also the need to consider what is, or
should be, INTV's core business: fee-for-service or the training of exit
year 10 students.
This also raises issues about student selection. Should access be
dependent on year 10 results or on student skills and interests? Where
do adults fit? What links should there be between INTV and the Rural
Training Centres? How can the current imbalance between male and
female students be rectified?
These issues (and more) are all significant to the future of INTV and
the sector as a whole?
The real question is whether the sector (or parts of it) wait to be
pushed into the world of training and education being suggested by
donors, the private sector and, most recently, by the Government's
Comprehensive Reform Program (and, perhaps less explicitly by this
seminar) or does it become pro-active and initiate change. The sign
posts are fairly clear. To do nothing may be safe but it would fail to
support the economic development of the country and, lnost
importantly, it would fail to meet the needs of our students.
A first move for INTV might be to consider for~nalising relations with
the private sector. A second might be to recommend the establishment
of a National Training System. (See attachment.) A third might be to
consider the possibility of training fee levied on a11 industries of, say
2%, on an enterprise's gross wageslsalaries. It might be even more
important to have some input into budget discussions. There is little
incentive to become more entrepreneurial if Government allocations
decrease as an institute's alternative revenue sources increase. And
many of these issues need to be considered by the post-secondary
sector as a whole.
Brief responses to other issues listed for discussion:
There is a need to consider those students who will not gain
formal employment. There are two issues of major concern.
Firstly, those students who return to their own or other rural
communities should take some usefill, relevant skills with thetn.
(For example, some skills in basic appropriate technology or
skills to help eradicate illiteracy.) In addition all students should
take at least one module in small business management. This
could be undertaken in conjunction with the Department of Rural
Any discussion of credit courses and extension studies raises the
issues of articulation and adult learning. For example, a student
should be able to proceed from pritnary scl~ool to a Rural
Training Centre (RTC), then to INTV and then to the USP or
another tertiary institution. An adult should be able to select a
module from a RTC and a module from INTV and have them
recognised and recorded. Currently there are few patl.lways and
many dead-ends or blind-alleys.
Although it was not listed for discussion, there is a real need to
consider Bislarna as a more important medium of instruction in
the post-secondary sector.
This paper was not intended to reach firm conclusions or to list fornial
recommendations. It was written to stimulate discussion. S o let us
reiterate some of the most important issues to be discussed or problerns
to be confi-onted. They include:
. the need for more effective human resource planning;
. mechanisms for planning within the post-secondary sector;
. the nature of links with the private and goverlxnent
. the need for greater sectoral autonomy;
. the importance of access for adult and return-to-learn
. the need to increase gender equity;
the ilnplications of proposals to move to triennial funding,
'net-funding' and output funding;
. increasing pressure to seek funding from other-tllan-
appropriate training for students who may not find formal
articulation or pathways between and within sectors;
the role of Bislam;
the expectation that the sector should be more efficient;
it should do more with less.
French Technical Adviser, INTV
Bill Vistarini, Team Leader, AusAID Institutional Strengthening
STFUTEGIC PLANNING SEMINAR
NATIONAL SEMINAR - VANUATU 9-1 1 JULY 1997
NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATION PAPER
ABEL NAKO (DIRECTOR VRDTCA) IN
COLLABORATION WITH VANGO
This paper is presented in four parts, with a list of recom~nendations
presented in conclusion:-
a) Analysis of the concept of education in the context of Vanuatu with
an examination of how it is picked up and delivered by certain players
or stakeholders under Government policy frameworks.
b) Examination of the focus of education in the context o f s o called
high quality or appropriate education.
c) A closer look at how other players come into the field in an attempt
to pursue quality education - namely the NGO's , private sector,
universities, kindergartens, technical institutions and churches.
d) An attempt to re-focus education in the context of Vanuatu with
special attention on our rural population in the liglit of the various
levels at which education is delivered:-
iii) Secondary & Vocational/Technical
Education, whatever the definition might be fulfills four basic purposes:
ii) VocationalILife Skills
It can also be seen as serving a purpose for self discipline in a changing
society. "Education brings empower~nent and allows the individual to
make full use of his or her God-given talents".'
Under these purposes and broad Vanuatu Government framework,
different agents of education, namely Kindergarten, Primary,
Secondary, Technical, Tertiary and NFE attempt with varying
objectives to achieve what education means for them in the broadest
sense. The establishment of the National Curriculum Unit attempts to
unify these goals and objectives through a core curriculum and
coordination of formal Primary and Secondary Education, but success is
still to be determined by the recipients or its clients.
' CRP 1997
Nevertheless the experience today is, at the end of the day, that the
impact is but an exacerbation of the current level o f unemployment
particularly with regard to youth who consistently add to the rural
unskilled population to maintain it at around 80% of the total
The problem is so evident that one does not need statistics to prove it.
Ironically our educational policy framework maintains principles of
high quality education for the majority of children and the pretence of
relevancy with a priority to address the dichotomy of the two systems in
e x i ~ t e n c e . ~
In the final analysis, policy framework and what inay be
perceived to be appropriate education is largely loosely coupled
together. We are then presented with our own practical educational
a) Tensions between Anglophone & Francophone
b) Small pool of trainers
c) Growth in the School age populatio~l
d) Not enough trainers for both Secondary, technical/Vocational
Schools.. ..and the list continues.
The government has tried to tackle these issues i r i different ways:-
a) Building more French Schools, teaching both languages in
b) Providing Scholarships
c) Cl~anging Primary School age, free education/prilnary o r
school fees subsidy
d) USP correspondence courses
But the critical question that is still to be asked is whether w e are
addressing the core issues or the symptoms of our problems. This
question is up for critical analysis in the light of the current situation. It
is particularly critical when one starts to analyse the perceived need
pertaining to the immediate life skills against the demands of the wider
industries/economic demands and the culture.
Vanuatu's long term educational is for ten years of high quality education for the majority of
children, while the short term aim is to improve the quality of schooling, and Tor the sustninablc
expansion of the system. Ministry of Education.
words we have an education system that allows 80% of
Primary students to remain in their villages without properly equippi~lg
them for life skills.
There is no doubt that something is really wrong somewhere and that
this requires a revisitation of our system with an open mind in order to
re focus our priorities in Education.
The current situation
Less than 7%
\\ 33% of primary graduates gain places I
0% Rural or
67% of primary students remain
in rural villages
This is a very simplified diagram base on published figures for 1997'.
The diagram shows in a very broad sense the drop-out rate in the
education system as one moves up the education hierarchy while at the
same time matching the rate with the employment opportunities that are
available in the country.
Structure de Leducation, -situation actuelle au 20106197 Ministry of Education
The current system is therefore perceived to be:-
: based on a broad educational framework allowing different
educational institutions to pursue an educational trend that is oriented
towards urban jobs rather than industry driven.
: focused on different educational institutions subscribing to education
deriving from split purposes or focus with aims for students o f
opportunities without their existing realistic hope or little
assurance of employment.
: producing a disoriented sense of empowerment for the individual ni-
Vanuatu particularly if the majority of Primary School graduates remain
in rural areas unskilled. It is someway denies the "God given talents"
(CRP) individuals have for sustainable life styles.
: highly competitive for reasons that are hard to justify. The simple
fact of limited places at secondary level should not be the driver for the
type of education provided.
: a system which portrays and promotes disparity amongst individuals,
communities, rural and urban and promotes elitism.
: distancing itself from Primary School dropouts
: not concerned with the vocational sector which has had little attention
despite these obvious anomalies
The ~ r o n o s i t i o n at t h i s s t w e is for a chanye in focus or re-
orientation in the e d u c a t i o n sector throuph the fol1owin~:-
: re-visitation of the c o m m o n purpose of education for an analysis so
that the different
educational institutions whether forlnal or non-
formal, academic of vocational, derive from a comlnon base and are
working towards s o m e c o m m o n end, although retaining their identities.
: scrutinizing the P r i m a r y School curriculuin to become the focus of
this broader e d u c a t i o n delivery. The main players of education have to
be involved in d r a w i n g up its framework.
: Rural Training C e n t r e s to forlnaliy appear more in the scene.
Likewise the w i d e r s o c i e t y or the rural population of 80% will be drawn
closer to forlnal t r a i n i n g a n d hence participatioil in industries and the
wider economic activities.
: Sustainable l i v e l i h o o d and business ventures become the prime focus
of this new t r e n d or training therefore frame works around rural
development and sustainability need be identified and incorporated into
our educational p o l i c y framework. With this in mind, if sustainability
necessitates a change in attitudes and mentalities because of market
pressures then so be it.
: Because NGOs and Government in the context of Vanuatu differ in
some respects particularly in strict accountability it would be ideal for
the government to consider NGO's delivering any training to do with
self sustainability and the related management practices towards
discplining the rural coinmunity in the context of education and
ventures. A re-focus is needed for our National Technical
Institute (INTV), in terms of what its role should be in this context.
: Some serious thoughts needs to be given to standardisation of the
Bislama vernacular and formalizing it in training.
STAGE : 3
This third stage puts into pers~ective education for direct
This stageldiagram shows how the primary sector and the RTCsINGOs
are brought Inore into the scene to maintain direct linkages with the
wider industry through INTV as the national technical institute. The
RTCs in trying to meet the needs of the rural community will naturally
link directly with these industries in order to achieve this objective. On
this basis it is critical that lnanagement models are adopted in the RTCs
taking into account the objective of self sustainability particularly in the
A model that is currently used by the Vanuatu Rural Developnlent
Training Centres Association (VRDTCA) can be termed as First Sweat
Model where new RTCs in the process of becoming a lnernber of
VRDTCA are expected to satisfy certain basic criteria on their own
within a period of one year before they start to receive the services of
The point here is that sustainability and dependency do not work
together so that it is essential to eliminate the mentality of dependency
before one embarks on any business venture. This is particularly
serious when 80% of the Vanuatu population is rural and embedded in
this culture is the legacy of dependency.
Based on this argument, the following suggestions are proposed:-
: Pritnary School Curriculum to be scrutinized with Rural Training
Centres becoming a real option for a large proportion of Primary School
: Training (in the RTCs) to be carried out by the NGOs within the
related fields of Health, Literacy, Environment, Civil Rights and
Gender to support government policy.
: Bislama to be only medium of colnmunication at RTCs. This is
because of two critical reasons:
a) the standard of French and English received at the end o f
Primary schooling is not adequate to continue as the medium
of communication at this level particularly for Trainers.
b) neutralizes the political dichotomy of the two languages.
(FrenchJEnglish). A government policy in this regard will
help enforce this.
: The economic industry of rural areas will relate much more closely t o
the non-formal sector, particularly the RTCs.
More direct links to be established between RTCs and INTV
: INTV to develop subcentres in the six provinces
: INTV to become highly specialized and to cater directly for RTC
needs and in turn rural industry needs.
USP to work in close collaboration with the Curriculu~n
Centre and the
Vanuatu Teachers College to produce quality packages.
packages be designed in a way that although acadernically oriented
vocational and sustainable lifeskills become an alternative endeavour
after primary school age.
Subject areas of learning to do with health, literacy (practical literacy),
environment, civil rights, gender, and good governance be introduced a t
the very basic level at primary schools.
Government implementing policy on Non Formal Education with a
clear framework and a plan to the extent of decentralizing INTV as a
possible reaction to demands from a growing number of RTCs.
THE ROLE OF USP VANUATU
Based on what has been presented it is therefore perceived that USP's
role as an institution for higher learning should encornpass the
: preparedness to come down and work in partnership or close
collaboration with its core educational agencies particularly with the
Primary and vocational sector through the Education Planning
: USP in close collaboration with MOE identify measures in order to
facilitate articulation for various levels of education drawing particular
attention to bridging the gap between the une~nployed r ~ ~ r a l
population and Formal Vocational Education.
: to establish a closer working relationship with the NGOs particularly
VANGO so that they co-facilitate short courses, curricululn, etc in
different relevant subject areas demanded by NGOs. An ideal situation
here is to mobilize efforts in the two sub-centres in Santo and Tafea and
in turn work up the hierarchy.
: avoid duplication with the N G o s in the services they both provide to
: run certificate courses in Comlnullity development adjusted to suit the
: look into ways of reviving the Vanuatu Agricultural school, Tagabe
with help of the Alafua campus.
: work towards standardisation of Bislarna as the inain rnediu~n of
comlnunication in RTCs.
: work closely with women and other relevant organisations to promote
gender participation with a focus on increased woman's participation in
all sectors of development.
: USP to facilitate business courses in close collaboration with the
Dept. of Cooperatives a n d Rural Business conducive to the Vanuatu
business environment and economic activity bearing in mind the current
cultural and econornic barriers t o participation in business ventures.
: work with MOE towards national standards in Non Forrnal Education
(NF E) .
: work with MOE and industries to create or facilitate an award scheme
for national scholarships eg. scholarships to study at INTV, VTC,
Nursing School etc.
: upgrade the standard of Tagabe Agriculture school with help of
campus - articulation.
USP STRATEGIC PLANNING SEMINAR
PORT VILA, 9-10 JULY 1997
The NZODA Policv Framework
The NZODA Policy Framework describes the purpose of NZODA as
to achieve lasting improvements in the living conditions of present
and future generations of people living in developing countries,
especially the poor.
Obviously education plays a key role in the achievement of this broad
goal. This purpose gives rise to a set of "Guiding Principles", which lay
out a road map for New Zealand's assistance to developing countries,
including Vanuatu. These principles are:
partner responsibility: in recognition that New Zealand can assist
development, but nothing will be achieved without input and
from the partner country;
building capacity hence a concentration on human resource
developlnent and institutional strengthening ;
* participation of all people in the development process; and
involving the New Zealand community, sharing New Zealand's
expertise and forging links between all sections of the co~nmunity
As a sector, education is an element in all the above principles. It plays a
key role in building capacity, ensuring sustainable, participatory
development, and reducing poverty.
Gender and development
New Zealand is committed to full participation by women in the
development process, to ensure sustainability of activities and equity in
the delivery of NZODA resources. A key strategy is to promote
activities which enhance the role and position of women and increase
their equitable participation in and benefits from development activities.
NZODA works to ensure that women have equal opportunities to benefit
from activities throughout the NzODA programme. This is particularly
important in education, where programmes and scholarships are to be
funded and administered with gender equity in mind.
NZODA and the Vanuatu education sector
The education sector has domillated New Zealand's aid to Vanuatu since
its inception. In the 1996197 year, education will account for about 70%
of New Zealand's assistance. This reflects the importance the Vanuatu
Government attaches to the sector and New Zealand's assistance to it.
A large proportion of this support is channelled to scholarships for study
overseas. There are currently over 100 Vanuatu students studying in
regional institutions and in New Zealand on fully funded bilateral
NZODA awards. (Many more are studying in New Zealand under the
regional Aotearoa Scholarships allocation.)
At the request of the
Vanuatu Government, a far greater proportion of these awards are
allocated for training in the regions, including at USP, than has been the
case in the past. For 1998, NZODA is offering 24 new awards at
regional institutions, compared to only seven in New Zealand. This
reflects the cost effectiveness of the regional institutions, as well as the
appropriateness of the training they offer. This concentration on third
country training is now common to NZODA programmes throughout the
Pacific and i s demonstrated by the number of NZODA programmes
throughout t h e Pacific and is demonstrated by the number of NZODA-
sponsored students at the Elnalus Campus studying law.
New Zealand also supports education in Vanuatu, including through
support to the Department of Education for primary and secondary level
schooling under the Education Assistance Programme (EAP), funding for
in-country and overseas short course training, rural skills training and the
USP Foundation and Summer School programmes. Funding for the USP
Foundation programme will be phased out over three years as the
Vanuatu Government wants preparation for tertiary study to be
concentrated under the Bursary programme, currently taught at Malapoa
and Matevulu colleges, and the baccalaureate programme for the
New Zealand envisages, subject of course to the priorities identified by
the Vanuatu Government, that education will continue to win the lion's
share of NZODA resources in Vanuatu. The EAP is being jointly
reviewed by Vanuatu and New Zealand to identify its successes to date
and ensure that it continues to provide worthwhile assistance in the
future. Scholarships are likely to continue to be an important element of
NZODA assistance and the concentration on awards to regional
institutions will remain. We welcome the Strategic Seminar's focus on
~naxirnising the appropriateness of what USP can offer to Vanuatu.
NZODA will remain open to supporting and working with USP, through
the provision of study scholarships and other assistance. NZODA often
engages the services of consultants, in Vanuatu and in other programlnes
around the Pacific. We are aware of USP's capacity in this area.
New Zealand's High Co~nlnission
11 June 1997
VANUATU STRATEGIC PLANNING SEMINAR IN EDUCATION
PORT VILA, 9-10 JULY 1997
AUSTRALIAN PERSPECTIVE AS A DONOR
I am delighted to have been invited here this afternoon to speak at this
seminar. Let me emphasise that what I have to say is an Australian
perspective and may not be that of all donors. I should also like t o
apologise for not being able to attend all sessions yesterday a n d
consequently may repeat some of what has already been presented b y
other speakers. As a significant contributor to the education sector i n
Vanuatu and to USP, Australia's is in a position to provide a perspective
o n Vanuatu's education needs for the next decade and identify s o m e
issues that the University of the South Pacific will need to consider i f it i s
t o respond effectively to Vanuatu's needs.
The timing of this seminar is fortuitous. The recent endorsement of
Vanuatu's Colnprehensive Reform Program (CRP) at the National
Summit has highlighted what I think many of us here in this room have
recognised for some time - Vanuatu's
education system needs
This seminar not only provides an opportunity for
Vanuatu and USP to assess future needs but also provides an early
opportunity for people to discuss ways to improve the education system
in Vanuatu. The rate of any improvement will be influenced by h o w the
Government, the community, USP and donors respond to Vanuatu's
educational needs. I will return to the importance of the CRP often.
I would like to quickly reflect on two issues: Australia's commitment t o
the education sector under our aid program; and our relationship with
Education a s a priority for Donors
Suffice to say that assistance to education programs form the largest
element of Australia's aid program to the Pacific region. Late last year
the Australian Government released a policy state~nent
that outlined t h e
underlying principles of our assistance to education and training; without
going into details, the key aspects related to access, equity, quality,
relevance and effectiveness. Interestingly, these are all identified i n
Vanuatu's CRP Document as areas needing improvement.
~is a t
tlonor lto i
uSP a n d our relationship extends b a c k
to its foundation in 1970. We recognise and fully support the unique r o l e
in serving the needs of the Pacific countries; and w e applaud
the progress and development of the University in providing appropriate
levels of education and training for t h e Pacific. We aim to continue to
work closely wit11 USP to ensure that t h i s positive relationship continues.
Australia has a standing com~nit~nent
to support the University through
budgetary and capital works funding. It should also be recognised t h a t
nlany of the students studying at USP catnpuses are f i ~ n d e d u n d e r
Australia11 awards. As a donor, w e take satisfaction in seeing t h e
benefits that we derived fi.0111 education and training provided by USP.
I-Ioivever, I stress that we fully support t h e objective of USP to review i t s
role in the context of the changing nature and require~nents
of the P a c i f i c
island countries. I hope no-one underestimates the demanding a n d
challenging role faced by the USP in providing appropriate and quality
education to people in the Pacific.
I think the particular challenges faced b y the USP in providing quality
atid appropriate training in the Pacific are well covered in its paper. How
well it faces those challenges will determine its success in the future.
Constraints in the Education Sector
I think it would be useful to highlight some key issues and constraints
faced by Australia in attempting to respond to Vanuatu's eclucational
needs - political instability; broad capacity constraints in the public a n d
private sectors; the lack of an Education Strategy to direct d o n o r
assistance; the lack of human resource development priorities; and a n
appropriate budget commitment to the education sector which includes
meeting obligations for donor-financed activities and their on-going
Regarding continual political changes, a l l I wish to say is that it is v e r y
difficult to determine education priorities and to ~nobilise education
programs when we are continually dealing with new political scenarios.
We are constantly faced with new priorities and requirements alld t h i s
leads to slow progress in developing and imple~nenting appropriate
One of the key issues identified in the CRP and faced by donors is the
broad lack of capacity in Inany areas of the public and private sectors.
This issue is a f~lndamental challenge for Vanuatu, for donors, and for
institutions such as USP, and it is essential that we work together to
address this problem. My experience is that there are no short term easy
solutions. Our task, however, would be made silnpler if Vanuatu had a
clear and appropriate Education Strategy to guide us and if there were
identified priorities for human resource development. Without these key
frameworlcs we are a11 operating in an ad hoc way that results in
inefficient use of resources; an unacceptable situation.
Another problem relates to appropriate budget commitments by the
Government that are required if donors activities are to be sustainable.
The Australian Government regularly receives requests for further
assistance after an activity has been co~ilpleted that should be tlie
responsibility of the Vanuatu Government. If the Governlnent cannot
meet the on-going recurrent costs obligations of a project then it should
not agree to the project.
Education & Capacity Building
Education is a priority sector for Australia's aid program to Vanuatu -
and this has been the case for many years. In 1996197 Australia's aid
program to Vanuatu totalled around AUD 13 ~iiillion (1.1 billion vatu)
and funding to the education sector was around AUD 4.6 million (395
million vatu) - this is a very conservative estimate as it does not include
training provided under projects not in the education sector, nor does it
include regional program activities.
The Australian aid program is geared towards capacity building and
institutional strengthening. We attempt to address the capacity problem
from Inany directions: we have a number of specific projects which aim
to strengthen key departlnents and institutions - Forestry and Lands are
examples; all our projects and activities have significant training
components; we have a key project at INTV strengthening the provision
of vocational and technical training; we support a range of projects in the
education sector, we have advisers in priority areas such as finance,
education, health, planning, tourism, aviation, legal sectors, all of wlloln
provide training to counterparts.. ..if there are available counterparts; we
provide training and scholarship awards to institutions in the region and
Australia; and so it goes on. This approach by Australia recognises the
fundamental role of education and training in the capacity building
I think one of the k e y issues that needs to be considered when discussing
capacity buiIding a n d U s p is the role of scholarships. Australia provides
opportunities at higher education levels through the provision of
scholarships for tertiary training. Scholarships contribute to human
resource development in Vanuatu and should have a direct impact on
across various sectors.
We as donors also have to recognise that develop~nent needs and
priorities are c h a n g i n g in countries such as Vanuatu and we too need to
respond to these. We are continually looking for ways to ilnprove our
approach to education. The scholarship program increasingly reflects
develop~nents in higher education including strengthening of regional
institutions, twinning arrangements and increasing utilisation of distance
One recent change in scholarship policy in Vanuatu and other Pacific
countries impacts o n USP. From 1998, the Vanuatu Government and
Australia have agreed to provide more awards to regional institutions and
only offer awards i n Australia to post-graduate applicants - i~nless an
appropriate course is not available in the region. This new policy will
see more awards offered and also provide training that is more relevant
to the Pacific context.
Importantly we are supporting regional
institutions such a s USP. It is imperative that USP work closely with
Pacific countries to ensure it is providing relevant and appropriate
progralils for students. It is also important that USP work closely with
donors to ensure that it is able to meet the increased demands that will
undoubtedly arise f r o m this policy.
Linked t o this policy, we have agreed that awards will be prioritised for
key sectors identified in the CRP. Consequently, the majority of
Australian awards will be offered to students studying in sectors that
support private sector led growth (accounting, economics, banking,
business); in k e y business sectors (agriculture, fisheries, forestry,
tourism); and in areas promoting equity (health, education and
I note the Vanuatu Government's Paper presented yesterday
recommended that the USP in collaboration Training & Scholarships Co-
ordination Unit (TSCU) undertalce a study on scholarship graduates and
where they are now. Please note that such a study has recently been
initiated by AusAID of all our previous scl~olarship
holders; in addition,
the TSCU Strengthening Project also includes the develop~nent of a
comprehensive data base.
Vanuatu's Comprehensive Reform Program
As recognised in USP's Paper, many Pacific countries are facing
economic and financial difficulties and social changes. Many of USP's
member governlneilts are undergoing r e f o r ~ l ~ s .
Vanuatu is one of these
and it has set itself a truly comprehensive reform agenda under its CRP.
The CRP provides the Vanuatu Govern~nent
with a ~nandate
many of the constraints that undermine development in the education
sector. I think most of us would agree that education is development's
basic building block and there is an urgent need for Vanuatu to raise the
education and skill levels to support and drive its reform effort. I
understand that the CRP docu~nent has identified over 120 areas of
reform and I suggest that most of these are linkcd to irnprovelnents in
education and sltills. USP and other training institutions, along with
donors, must take note of the key areas identified by the CRP as being
important to Vanuatu's future development.
Australia is moving rapidly to ensure our program supports Vanuatu's
reform priorities and we would expect USP to do likewise.
Australian Assistance to the Education Sector
I would argue that all of Australia's aid activities are contributing to
improving the level of education, skills and capacity in Vanuatu. Our
program supports curriculuin development, teacher training, in-country
training, in-Australia training, procurement of materials and building of
infrastructure. We also provide assistance under a range of regional
initiatives such as the Basic Education and Life Skills Project and
funding for the South Pacific Board for Educational Assessment. I
would like to outline some bilateral projects that relate directly to the
I. INTV Strengthening Project
Highlights Australia's policy to support vocational and technical
education. We see this as a key project to enhance the quality of
appropriately trained workers for industries.
2. Secondary Teacher Training Project
A project currently being designed which will develop for teachers an
appropriate dipIoma for yr 7-1 0 teachers at VTC and provide higher level
training in collaboration with USP.
3. Primary Schools Materials Project
Pilot projects to supply primary school materials.
4. Scholarships Office Strengthening Project
T o strengthen the administrative capacity of the TSCU and to improve
5. Secondary Schools Extension Project
Infi'astructure project t o cater for increased demands on secondary
schools in year 11, 12 and 13.
6. Primary Schools Project
Infrastructure expansion to a number of primary schools.
7. Government Training Centre Project
Strengthening GTC's capacity to provide training courses for the
8. Support for USP Foundation Course
W e are providing funding, at decreasing levels, for the USP Foundation
program which prepares students for university.
Some Additional Issues for USP Consideration
1. Distance Education
The Australian aid program to Vanuatu is currently supporting some
government officers undertake distance education through Austr a 1' lan
Institutions. We do not have the capacity t o extend this much further as
load is too high. In addition, a critical consideration
before we approve is the level of tutor support that is available. It would
appear that this coulcl be an area that USP could support.
2. Gender and Rural Equity
An underlying principle of Australia's aid policy, particularly our
education and training policy, is that w e will prornote equity in
of education opportilnities and in resource allocation,
including equal opportunities for women and girls and rural
communities. This is an area we are having a great deal of difficulty
addressing in Vanuatu as recognised in the CRP doculnent - one of the
nine benchnlarlts in the clocurnent to assess the situation o f women
relates to the education sector. I note with some concern that the USP
Paper paid very little attention to this issue apart from some statistics.
3. Donor Consultations
Donors play a ltey role in supporting USP's operations in Vanuatu,
through either direct funding or scholarships. The education sector is a
high priority for all donors and I believe it would be u s e f ~ ~ l
representatives from Emalus and Donors met more regularly t o discuss
4. Secondary Teacher Training Project
I have ~nentioned this project already, however, a number of key issues
are relevant for USP.
o This project will build VTC capacity to develop and sustain yr 7-10
Specific training awards will be provided at USP to train yr 7-13
Recognition of prior learning will be important as trainees entering
USP will have different entry qualifications and some will have
substantial teaching experience.