Technical Vocational 
Education and Training:  ‘The 
Master Key’ 
 
 
 
 
‘The  Review  of  the  Functions  of 
FIT,  TPAF  and  other  TVET 
Providers’  
 
 
For the Ministry of Education, Youth
and Sports, Arts, Culture & National
Heritage

 
June 2008
 
 
 
Prepared by: 
Dr Akhilanand Sharma of the University of the South Pacific  
and Eci Naisele of the Ministry of Education TVET Section 
 
 
This report does not reflect the views of the University of the South 
Pacific or the Ministry of Education 

 


ii


Technical Vocational 
Education and Training: 
‘The Master Key’ 
 
 
 
 
‘The  Review  of  the  Functions  of 
FIT,  TPAF  and  other  TVET 
Providers’  
 
For the Ministry of Education, Youth
and Sports, Arts, Culture & National
Heritage

Prepared by: 
 
………………………………………………… 
Dr Akhilanand Sharma  
of the University of the South Pacific  
 
…………………………………………………. 
Eci Naisele  
of the Ministry of Education TVET Section 

 
 

iii
June 2008
 


Table of Contents


Acknowledgement

v
Executive Summary
vi
Acronyms
xiv
Definitions
xv
Chapter 1
Introductory Chapter
1
Rethinking Technical Vocational Education and Training:
Vocationalising Education

Chapter 2
TVET…Programmes
14

2.1 TVET administration
14

Managing Authorities

TVET Characteristics
Different TVET Providers


2.3 Types TVET Programmes

2.3.1School Based
17
2.3.1.1
Formal TVET Education-Pre-Vocational
2.3.1.2 Curriculum
2.3.1.3
Vocational Education Training


2.3.2 Private Vocational Training Institutions
22
2.3.2.1
Monfort Boys Town
2.3.2.2
Private TVET Providers


2.3.3 Non Formal TVET
24
2.3.3.1
Advanced Vocational Training (AVT
2.3.3.2
Ministry of Youth, Sports and Productivity,
Department of Youth Training Scheme
2.3.3.3
Tutu Vocational Centre


2.3.4 TVET Tertiary Institutions
27
2.3.4.1
Fiji College of Agriculture [FCA]
2.3.4.2
Fiji Forestry School


2.3.5 Teacher Preparation Institutions
29
2.3.5.1
Fiji College of Advanced Education
2.3.5.2
University of the South Pacific [USP]

Chapter 3
FIT and TPAF
30

Chapter 4
Presentation and Discussions of the Findings
45

Chapter 5
The Way Forward for TVET in Fiji: Recommendations for
77
Policy and Practice

References
86

Appendices (A) 1-9
List of people met and places visited (A1), schools visited
90
(A2), Correspondence (A3) Interviews (A4), Report on
Business Excellence Award (A5), FEA – A Case Study
(A6), Key Economic Data (A7), Statistics (A8), Projected
Budget (A9)

iv

Acknowledgement
We were inspired to name this review report as ‘TVET: The Master Key’ after attending a
very successful workshop on TVET in the Republic of Palau in 2006. In particular, the term
is mentioned in the editorial section of the prospects, quarterly review of the comparative
education (UNESCO, vol. XXXV, no. 3, September 2005) and it became very popular in
the workshop. This title sets the conceptual basis of this review.

We are grateful to numerous persons, institutions and organizations that have provided
valuable information as well as documents for this review. Firstly, we thank the former
Interim Minister for Education, Science and Technology, Mr. Netani Sukanaivalu, for giving
us the opportunity to conduct this review. We also acknowledge, with appreciation, the
contribution made by the current Education Minister, Mr Filipe Bole, while he was a senior
lecturer at the University of Fiji and now in the office of the Minister.

This review was of great educational value to us. We also acknowledge the Permanent
Secretary for Education, Mrs Rabukawaqa and the Deputy Secretary for Education,
Administration and Finance, Mr. Filipe Jitoko, for their assistance throughout the review
process and for seconding Mr. Eci Naisele of the TVET section of MOE as the project
secretary. The Human Resources Planning Committee of the Ministry of Finance, National
Planning and Sugar Industry has also made useful input in this review exercise and for that
we are indeed grateful.

We are indebted to the Directors of FIT and TPAF for providing valuable documents and
time for discussion and consultation. Both Mr. Jone Usamate and Dr Ganesh Chand
deserve our heartfelt gratitude. The staff members and students of FIT and TPAF are also
thanked for their contributions. We also express our gratitude to the industry
representatives for discussing the work of FIT and TPAF and for providing valuable
information on the effectiveness or otherwise of the courses and the programs of the two
institutions.

We acknowledge with appreciation the input provided by the appropriate sections,
Government and NGOs to this exercise. The University of the South Pacific (USP) and the
University of Fiji (UOF) have freely discussed the rationale for establishing the National
University of Fiji and the ways in which USP, UOF, FIT and TPAF can function as a team to
provide relevant and authentic education to Fiji citizens within the confines of limited
resources available. The valuable input of FESP and TVET Vocational Adviser, Mr. Donald
de Klerk also needs mentioning in this submission.

Selected secondary schools that provide franchised TVET programs have also made
considerable contribution to this review. Their critical examination of the strengths and
limitations of the franchised programs provided insights that were helpful in suggesting
ways in which the limitations may be addressed.

We also like to put on record, with appreciation, the contribution made by USP, the Ministry
of Education and the Forum Secretariat for making available the necessary documents for
our desk study.

Finally, we thank everyone who has contributed in this review and wish them success in
their future TVET endeavours.

Dr Akhilanand Sharma, (Chairperson)
Associate Professor and Head of School of Education
The University of the South Pacific
Eci Naisele (Secretary)
Senior Education Officer, Ministry of Education
v

Executive Summary
1.0 Introduction

The review of the functions of FIT, TPAF and other TVET providers was
commissioned by the Minister of Education. A clearly articulated ‘Terms of Reference’
(TOR) was provided for the review. In conjunction with this work, the TOR also
expected the review team to look at TVET in totality especially the initiatives of MOE in
secondary schools and those of private providers and the University of the South
Pacific.
This review is seen as increasingly necessary for two reasons. Firstly, TVET plays an
equally important role in the social, economic and political development of any nation
together with its academic counterpart. However, Fiji has not fully realized its potential
and has treated it as a ‘second best option’ to academic education. TVET is gradually
gaining the attention it deserves in the total learning system of all Fiji citizens.
Education is regarded as the key to development, however, TVET is seen as ‘the
master key’ because it has the ability to open all the ‘doors’ of life-long learning and
improve the vocational expertise and consequently the quality of living. It is expected
that this review report would empower the stakeholders, especially the policy-makers,
so that they can genuinely accept TVET as an equally important component of the
total learning system providing relevant knowledge, skills and competencies for
employability, quality living and learning communities.
Secondly, FIT and TPAF are the two main institutions responsible for training skilled
human resources for various industries in Fiji. The review examines the extent to
which these institutions are fulfil ing this need and how they could work as a team to
avoid any unnecessary duplication of functions and reach-out to the other sectors of
the economy. To locate FIT and TPAF in the realistic TVET scenario, it became
necessary for the review team to examine TVET programs in secondary schools and
private organizations. After studying these organizations, the review team strongly
recommends the setting up of an overarching national coordinating authority for
policy, quality assurance and monitoring.
Furthermore, the team stresses the need to vocationalise education beginning right
from pre-school through secondary to tertiary programs of study. The vocationalising
initiative, it is emphasized, is concerned with educating the ‘whole person’ by providing
life-skills including values education and preparation for the ‘world of work’, self-
employment and ongoing learning. In this regard, it becomes a learning strategy
destroying the dualist nature of our education system, that is, the academic education
stream for the majority and the vocational for slow learners. Therefore, this review
report takes a visionary approach and goes beyond the review of the functions of the
TVET providers and suggests the ‘restructuring of the whole education system’ to
enable students to acquire academic as well as vocational education within the same
program of the schooling process.
2.0 Terms of Reference
2.1 To compare the FIT Act, TPAF Act and the Education Act with the view to
identifying areas of duplications in terms of responsibilities. It would be relevant
to the understanding of the Taskforce for FIT and TPAF to provide an
interpretation of their roles and core responsibilities according to their Acts and
what links they have with the other institutions such as USP and MoE.

2.2 Make recommendations to the review of the three Acts to clearly demarcate
responsibilities of the three institutions in terms of training activities. FIT and
TPAF may need to identify areas they are currently working with that lie outside
of their Act.

2.3 Consider the robustness of the Acts in terms of meeting the country's demands
for skill training and requirements.
2.4 Define and assess the target audience for each institution.

vi

2.5 Ensure that the two institutions have greater accountability to the responsible
Minister for meeting their core functions within the resources provided by
government.

2.6 Review the current structure of accountability with the two institutions coming
under two different Ministers and Ministries.
2.7 Review the training programmes of FIT and TPAF and identify areas of
duplications in training.
2.8 Make recommendations on how to streamline the training activities in the two
institutions to better show their core functions in terms of meeting the skilled
manpower of the industries and determine future of excess programmes.

2.9 Look at major pathways, in connection with the National Qualifications
Framework, for learning in the area of TVET between the schools, FIT, TPAF
and the USP.

2.10 Assess the fees structure of FIT and TPAF and make recommendations on how
learning can be more affordable to the public.
2.11 Make any other recommendations to the Minister for Education for improving
effectiveness and efficiency of FIT and TPAF and issues for future research and
considerations.

3.
The structure of the Report
The report is presented in five chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the background of
TVET, concentrating on its concept, orientations, locations, potential and challenges.
It also succinctly explains the review methodology. In the second chapter, TVET
programs in Fiji are discussed briefly with particular reference to TVET administration
and types of programs. The third chapter examines FIT and TPAF in some depth.
Chapter 4 reflects broadly on the overall findings of the review and the last chapter
presents recommendations for policy and practice. In each chapter, some implications
for policy and practice are made. These are consolidated in Chapter 5. The
recommendations for policy and practice relate to (a) the overall structure of TVET, (b)
the specific pre-service and in-service functions of FIT and TPAF respectively, (c)
quality TVET centres and the delivery of skill-based training in rural and remote areas,
(d) National Qualification Framework (NQF), (e) empowerment programs for the
stakeholders, (f) research, and (g) leadership and staff professional development.
4
Data Management Approach
This report is the product of extensive consultations with the relevant TVET
stakeholder community that included the members of the taskforce, industries,
respective institutions, educators, policy-makers, employers, informal sector, and
selected primary and secondary schools and their communities and students.
Moreover, documentary analysis and observation were the other strategies to gather
relevant data. The relevant literature was also studied and it provided us the
appropriate conceptual base to anchor the report.
The two institutions, namely, FIT and TPAF, that were studied provided valuable
submissions based on the TOR of the review and their appropriate documents
including handbooks, strategic plans, annual reports and the like. This information was
useful in formulating the recommendations that are provided in various sections of the
review report.
Qualitative data collecting approaches employed in this review enabled us to collect
information that represents the views of a diverse section of the relevant stakeholder-
family. Thus, it was possible to draw policy-makers, policy-users, employers, private
sector, students and self-employed persons into TVET policy development and
management. The interview and discussion transcripts were returned to the principal
informants for validation and comments. The draft review report was also presented to
FIT and TPAF Boards and staff academic committees. It was also presented to the
Human Resources Planning Committee of the Ministry of Finance, National Planning
and Sugar Industry. Both the Ministers, mentioned above, and the Permanent

vii

Secretary of Education were given copies of the draft review report in December
2007. The comments and suggestions made during the presentation and discussion
were accommodated and accordingly further additions and deletions were made. In
this way, most of the complexities and uncertainties were cleared in the terrain.
Apparently, this approach lands itself into the democratic process.
The two universities in Fiji, namely, the University of the South Pacific (USP) and the
University of Fiji (UOF) were also consulted and their views have found expression in
this report especially the recommendations regarding the proposed Fiji National
University (FNU). Perhaps, it is untimely to establish another national university on
national funding at the present time. It is suggested that a more partnership relations
be established amongst USP, UOF, FIT and TPAF in order to avoid unnecessary
duplication of courses and programs. Through pathway or cross-credit arrangements,
the certificate and diploma graduates from FIT and TPAF should be able to complete
their degree studies at USP or UOF. If and when established, the proposed FNU
could have a College of TVET comprising FIT and TVET as well as other TVET
providers. This would locate TVET in a “bigger picture’ of social, economic and
professional development. The proposed structure would also make it possible for
TVET to receive the respect and attention it deserves, enabling it to exist as an
equally important component of the total learning system and not as the ‘second-class
option’ to academic education (Fiji 1969; Fiji 2000; ADB 2007). The proposed College
would also create better cooperative relations among TVET providers especially
between FIT and TPAF. To rationalize TVET courses and programs and foster
teamwork, the College should be established as soon as possible.
The strength of any research-based report depends on interrelated variables such as
the availability and accuracy of data, the timeframe of the study and the funds
available to conduct it. There was hardly any funding allocation for this project.
However, the accuracy and the consistency of data were not compromised and were
achieved through the triangulation approach within the limited timeframe of the
project.
5 TVET
programs
5.1 Education systems in many developing countries are highly dependent on
Western intellectual models, which are essentially academic in content and
orientation. In recent decades, however, such systems have faced difficulties
that are seen by many to represent a ‘crisis’ in formal education for developing
countries. Major problems include access to educational opportunities, high
school push-out rates and the worsening phenomenon of educated
unemployment. The problem of a large number of school push-outs exists
especially among poorer sections of the population. Educated unemployment
and associated social problems have arisen because job opportunities fail to
keep pace with the rising expectations of those with formal education
qualifications. In this context, the concept of technical and vocational education
remains attractive to many educational policy-makers. Consistent with this world-
wide trend, Fiji has for some time attempted to incorporate significant technical
and vocational initiatives within its educations system.
5.2 The Education Commission Report 1969 proposes the introduction of vocational
education in secondary schools in Fiji to cater for the needs of school leavers
providing education and training for paid employment that would lead students to
higher education, to equip students for self employment and to provide life skills
for those who would return to a rural life. This notion was further endorsed by Fiji
Islands Education Commission Report 2000. The report stresses that ‘dualism’ in
secondary schools will always be a threat to technical and vocational education.
Over the years, technical and vocational education has struggled to get
recognition form all sectors leaving a rather vague picture that skill-training is
meant for those who are academically weak.
5.3 The present structure in the current TVET system saw it being offered and housed
in more than one government ministries. The Ministry of Education, (MoE)
manages the school-based TVET systems at primary, secondary and post-
v iii

secondary school levels. Despite its semi-autonomous arrangement, FIT comes
under MoE. The Monfort Boys’ Town is classified as a private provider of TVET
programs but currently receives an annual funding grant from MoE. The
Advanced Vocational Training (AVT) program provides short-term training to the
non-formal sector. It is managed by TVET section of MoE but is funded by the
Ministry of Planning and National Development under its Integrated Human
Resources Development Program (IHRD).
5.4 Private TVET vocational training institutions, such as the APTECH Computer
School, are registered by MOE that recognises their qualifications and graduates.
However, they are not closely monitored and do not receive financial or resource
assistance from the Education Ministry. Other private TVET providers with
agriculture-based training such as Tutu Vocational Centre are supported and
funded by the Ministry of Agriculture.
5.5 The Fiji College of Agriculture is a fully government agricultural institution and
provides a Diploma in Tropical Agriculture and this qualification is accredited by
USP.
5.6 The Ministry of Forestry provides forestry skills training at its Forestry School in
Colo-i-Suva and TITC in Nasinu. These organizations also provide short-term ‘up
skilling’ courses for the workers of the forestry/timber industry.
5.7 The Technology sections of USP’s School of Education, FIT Learning Centre and
FCAE provide TVET teacher training programs at certificate, diploma and degree
levels for those who wish to pursue ‘TVET teaching’ as a career.
6
Fiji Institute of Technology
6.1 FIT was established in 1964 with its initial name, the Derrick Technical Institute.
The main purpose of the Institute was to prepare human resources for the
technical and vocational needs of the country especially for skilled work in
commerce, trade and industry. This was consistent with the Colonial
Government’s policy of national development.
6.2 Most of its programs then were provided by off-shore providers such as the City
and Guilds of London Institute and the articulated trade programs from New South
Wales, Australia. With sponsorship from private companies such as FSC, Emperor
Gold Mine, PWD, Carpenter, Mallows and Millers Limited students were able to
complete their studies. The apprenticeship scheme was one of the driving forces
behind the existence of FIT.
6.3 Since 1996 FIT has moved forward in terms of its structure and functions. Firstly, it
became a semi-autonomous corporate entity, however, operating under the
confines of a Government Act and with approximately 67 percent of grant towards
it annual budget. Secondly, it now provides a broad spectrum of post-secondary
programs in TVET in response to the economic and educational development
policies of the Government and the needs of the industries and the marketplace.
6.4 According to FIT Act, a 12-member Council is the managing authority of the
Institution. About 80 percent of the council members are representatives from the
private sector. The Chair of the Council is also from a private organization.
6.5 Since 1996 the demand for places in FIT courses and programs has increased
considerably and this is putting undue pressure on its limited resources,
equipment and facilities. In the recent years it has been enrolling yearly over 3000
equivalent full-time students and this comprises around half of all Fiji students
undergoing post-secondary training programs. FIT has nine schools offering a
wide range at certificate, diploma, advanced diploma and degree levels.
6.6 Through ‘franchise’ mode of delivery, FIT offers opportunities to vocational centres
and secondary schools around the country to teach FIT programs. The purpose is
to allow students who have completed their secondary education get qualifications
and continue with their education at the tertiary level.

ix

6.7 FIT is strategically assigned to provide pre-service post secondary TVET
programs.

7. Training Productivity Authority of Fiji (TPAF)

7.1 The Training and Productivity Authority of Fiji (TPAF) is a statutory organization.
Its genesis lies in the Fiji National Training Council (FNTC) that was established
by the Fiji Government Act of 1973. The Act was amended by the Fiji National
Training Amendment Act of 2002, which renamed FNTC to TPAF.
7.2 TPAF operates under the Minister of Labour, Industrial Relations and Productivity
with the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry appointed as the Chairperson and
the Director General as the Chief Executive.
7.3 The managing authority of TPAF is a Board that has a tripartite structure
comprising a total of 14 representatives from three major social groups: the
Government, Employers and Employees.
7.4 TPAF is the national organization for technical and vocation education and
training. As such, it provides and arranges appropriate vocational education and
training. Moreover, it provides consultancy service to employers and other persons
and issues certificates of competency registered within the National Qualifications
Framework or qualifications approved by its National Standards and Accreditation
Council. It also provides training to persons outside the scope of the levy order on
terms and conditions it determines. Furthermore, it manages the levy grant
scheme, trade tests and the apprenticeship scheme. TPAF is also responsible for
promoting the concept of productivity and this it does through seminars, workshop,
national awards, benchmarking, productivity measurement and the like.
7.5 Strategically TPAF is assigned to provide in-service TVET programs to those
outside the formal school system.
8. Key Findings
8.1 Owing to strong pressure for academic credentials, TVET is still regarded as a
‘second best option’ rather than an important component of the life-long learning
process. This has an adverse effect on the overall development of TVET in the
two institutions under review as well as in other providers.
8.2 The successful implementation of TVET programs is constrained by the lack of
readiness of stakeholders, lack of relevance of some of the programs and
unavailability of suitable resources. The absence of relevant research-based data,
especially on functional labour market, primary industry and TVET graduates, also
hinders its successful planning and management.
8.3 The Education Ministry maintains very little contact with industries and informal
sector as well as FIT, TPAF and other private providers of TVET. It develops its
programs in isolation from the labour market. FIT and TPAF, however, have
employer and employee representation on their Boards and through their industrial
advisory committees receive feedback on the relevance of their programs. The
workplace attachment of Education Ministry TVET program is poorly organized
and the students do not receive useful on-the-job training.
8.4 TVET programs are not successfully implemented owing to the lack of
appropriately qualified teachers and leaders. In particular, a large number of
teachers have little industry experience in their teaching areas.
8.5 The quality of TVET training remains a problem in most rural areas where training
facilities are poorly equipped, under-financed and the expertise of teaching staff is
inadequate. Similarly, it was found that that the increasing urban poor are also not
attended to. FIT and TPAF have not designed programs for them.
8.6 The present FIT franchise program in secondary schools is unsatisfactory and
need attention especially in regards to the supply of resources and teaching staff.
x

8.7 The curricula of FIT, TPAF and other providers do not cater for job categories in
which many young people with diverse social and economic backgrounds may find
employment.
8.8 Both FIT and TPAF have expended quantitatively but they need to revisit the
quality of their courses and programs so that they provide relevant knowledge,
skills and competencies for employability.
8.9 TPAF has made the first draft of the National Qualifications Framework but it has
not been formulised yet. This is necessary because it has the potential to establish
standards and processes for quality control in FIT and TPAF as well as register
and accredit other providers.
8.10 There is lack of an overall administrative and management structure for policy
making, coordination, quality assurance and monitoring of TVET programs in Fiji
with particular reference to FIT, TPAF, primary and secondary schools and other
private providers.
8.11 There is very little relationship between FIT and TPAF mainly in areas such as
planning, curriculum and pedagogy.
8.12 FIT and TPAF were primarily established to provide pre-service and in-service
TVET programs respectively. However, there is considerable duplication of
courses and programs.
8.13 Disparity in gender participation still continues to exist in these institutions.
However, the students have the preference to take whatever program they wish to.
More female students still opt to take up ‘feminine-type’ subjects such as hospitality
and commerce. Other ‘masculine’ trade courses are generally taken by male
students.
8.14 Australia Pacific Technical College (APTC) has launched its programmes with its
head office in Fiji. Their programs are stationed at different schools or institutions. It
may in the long-term provide healthy competition amongst training providers but it
is likely to pave pathways for the emigration of skills and talents to Australia and
New Zealand.
9. Recommendations
9.1 That TVET be regarded as is the ‘Master Key’ because it has the potential to
transform the world of work and the economy, alleviate poverty, save the
environment and improve the quality of living.

xi

9.2 That the Government of Fiji establishes a Higher Education Commission1 (HEC) that
assumes the responsibility of drawing the tertiary education charter, acts and
policies for different sections of tertiary education including TVET.
9.3 That a national coordinating authority be established under which quality assurance,
national qualification framework, standards, certification, accreditation, acts, policy,
funding and training are taken care off. All TVET providers are to be sanctioned
under this national coordinating organisation.
9.4 That if and when the proposed Fiji National University (FNU) is established FIT,
TPAF and other TVET providers be located in the College of TVET of the University
structure.
9.5 This report reinforces that FIT must only concentrate on 2pre-service students and
programs and TPAF on 3in-service as stipulated in their respective acts. It is
recommended that the two institutions discuss this issue mutually and take the
course of action that would avoid duplication of courses, programs and resources.
This action would lead to cost-effectiveness and internal efficiency.
9.6 That Acts of FIT and TPAF be re-visited and a more precise and concise policies
and regulations be developed in consultation with the relevant stakeholders
especially the industries.
9.7 That TPAF and FIT courses and programs must address the demands for the
country’s skill training and requirements. They must address the needs for ‘wage’ as
well as ‘self’ employment.
9.8 That within the management structure of the National Coordinating Authority, NQF
be established with benchmark for academic and competency-based standard for all
TVET courses and programs must be provided.
9.9 That FIT and TPAF pay greater attention to the rural, island and informal sectors so
that people benefit from TVET initiatives.
9.10 That FIT and TPAF organize empowerment programs including workshops for
relevant stakeholders to address issues of relevance and readiness. It is also
important to prepare female coordinators together with their male counterparts.
9.11 That owing to the considerable mismatch between knowledge and skills acquired
and those available in the labour market both FIT and TPAF must institute ‘research’
studies to obtain correct information for future planning process.
9.12 That TVET institutions as well as Education Ministry pay greater attention to the
urban poor especially the children and youths in the squatter settlements. FIT and
TPAF must initiate new initiatives in TVET to cater for this large somewhat
neglected section of the population.
9.13 That the TVET heads and teachers or instructors must both be competent
administrators and professionals. There is clearly a need for training in TVET
leadership and pedagogy both at pre-appointment and after-appointment levels.
Both FIT and TPAF must provide professional development programs for the
members of their academic staff.
9.14 That funding provision be made by the Government to establish TVET National
Coordinating Authority, Quality Learning Centre and the National Qualification
Framework.

1 It is pleasing to note that HEC is now being established.
2 Pre-service programs are those education and training programs that students take before they enter the
workforce. These could be for job training or preparation for prospective work. Some people may take up
employment without any formal training and may get on-the-job training. Based on the quality of on-the-job
training, they may or may not be considered as pre-service students.
3 In-service programs are employees who may or may not have initial training and are in service or are
employed. They enroll in training or education institutions for job improvement, job enrichment, re-training or
up-skilling. In-service training programs may be short-term or long term depending on the employer or
employee needs and are usually sponsored.

xii








FIGURE 1: Proposed National TVET Coordinating
Authority




TVET Council
Permanent Secretaries
(12-15 members)
• Education, Youth, Finance,
National Planning, Agriculture &
Acts, National Policy, Planning
Ministry of Labour.
and Development
• Heads - FIT, TPAF, Director
NQF
TVET, University Reps, Union
Resources and Funding
Reps and selected representatives
National
TVET curricula
from the industry.
TVET Board
(10-15 members)
Human Resources Management
Research and Development
Registry and Finances
Universities:
FIT
TPAF
MOE
Other private TVET
Schools: Pre-
USP & UOF
Vocational Centres
and Non-Formal
school Primary and
& AVT
Education providers
Secondary





x iii

Acronyms
ADB
Asian Development Bank
AERT
Automotive Engineering Road Transport
ASQT
Accreditation, Standards, Quality Team
AusAID
Australian Agency for International Development
AVT
Advanced Vocational Training
BCE
Building Civil Engineering
CBET
Competency Based Education and Training
COM Commerce

EFTS
Equivalent Full Time Students
ELE Electronic
Engineering
EU European
Union
FBEAP
Forum Basic Education Action Plan
FCA
Fiji College of Agriculture
FCOSS
Fiji Council of Social Service
FESP
Fiji Education Sector Programme
GDP
Gross Domestic Product
FIBOS
Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics
FIT
Fiji Institute of Technology
FJC
Fiji Junior Certificate
FNU Fiji
National
University
FSF
Fiji School of Forestry
FSFE
Fiji Seventh Form Examination
FSLC
Fiji School Leaving Certificate
FTC Forestry
Training
Centre
FTE
Full Time Equivalent
GOF Government
of
Fiji
HEC High
Education
Commission
HRD
Human Resource Development
HTS
Hospitality Tourism Studies
IACs
Industry Advisory Committees
ICT
Information and Communication Technology
IGA Income-generating
activity
IGAs
Income Generating Activities
IHRDPEP
Integrated Human Resource Development Programme for Employment Promotion
ILO
International Labour Organization
ITAC
Industry-Training Advisory Committee (TPAF)
KPIs
Key Performance Indicators
MEC
Mechanical Engineering
MoE
Ministry of Education
MOFNP
Ministry of Finance and National Planning
MSME
Micro, small and medium sized enterprises
NCSMED
National Centre for Small and Micro Enterprises Development
NFSD
Non Formal Skill Development
NGO Non-governmental
Organisation
NQF
National Qualifications Framework
NSAC
National Standards and Accreditation Council
NSS
National Service Scheme
NTPC
National Training and Productivity Council
SME
Small and Medium-Size Enterprise
STFE
Skills Training for Employment
TORs
Terms of Reference
TPAF
Training and Productivity Authority of Fiji
TVET
Technical-Vocational Education and Training
TVTC
Tutu Vocational Training Centre
UCA
University College of Agriculture
UCM
University College of Medicine
UCTE
University College of Teacher Education
UCTV
University College of TVET
UNESCO
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation
USP
University of the South Pacific


xiv

Definitions
Advanced Vocational Training
Non formal skill certificated training on needs basis at

short duration

Competency


Skill


Education


Acquiring knowledge about something


Formal training

Organized training as part of the formal system of
education and training



Informal sector

Non-wage (or non-registered, non-tax paying
enterprises)



Informal training

Acquisition of skills through ad hoc means, such as
from parents, elders, or by observing and practicing
on the job



Modern sector
Registered enterprises, wage-paying


Non-formal training

Organized training outside the education and training
System



Pre-vocational
The provision of basic skill oriented subjects as part of
a general secondary curriculum



Private vocational

Programmes offered at private vocational institutions
that are registered and recognised but are not
financially supported by MoE


Skills Development

The acquisition of the practical competencies,
know-how and attitudes necessary to perform a trade
or occupation in the labour market



Training


Preparation for an occupation

Training Provider


Those who deliver training


TVET
Technical-vocational education and training



TVET Academic Education
Trade subjects that are formally taught in forms 1 to 7
and nationally examined but are practically oriented



Vocational Education
Skills training for two years after secondary education
either school based or stand alone but are not
nationally examined



Tech Voc
The term used in this report referring to TVET











xv

C h a p t e r
Introductory Chapter
1


4Rethinking Technical Vocational Education and Training:
Vocationalising Education
INTRODUCTION
“While education is the key to any development process, TVET is the ‘Master Key’
that can transform the world of work and the economy, alleviate poverty, save the
environment and improve the quality of life” (Luisoni, 2005: 250).

This chapter sets out to provide the conceptual basis of TVET so that the functions of FIT,
TPAF and other vocational education providers can be understood from a wider
perspective. As Luisoni (2005) mentions above TVET carries the status of a ‘master key’ of
life-long education and training and hence the institutions under study cannot be
understood in isolation if their improvement and development are to be sustained. As
Delors, et al. (1996) postulate a continuous education process helps develop the ‘whole
person’ enabling people to develop awareness of themselves, their environment and their
social role that they can play at their work and in the community. The concept of learning
throughout life with all its benefits such as flexibility, diversity and availability at different
times, places and layers of education and training is clearly the foundation upon which
educational planning and development must be anchored. This is consistent with the
UNESCO documents such as EFA, MDGs and DESD.
For more than half a century the search for an appropriate education has preoccupied
educational thinking. The role of TVET, especially in relation to delivering quality education,
has been the subject of considerable discussion, research and policy reforms. TVET
received considerable attention during the deliberations of the Fiji Islands Education
Commission 2000. Numerous local, regional and international conferences and workshops
have deliberated at length on this topic stressing the valuable and complementary role that
TVET can play in providing relevant knowledge, skills and competencies for employability
as well as quality living.
This chapter captures the essence of the issues raised in some of these conferences and
workshops. In particular, the PRIDE organized regional workshop in the Republic of Palau
in 2006 and a symposium in the Marshall Islands (2008) provided valuable contributions in
this paper especially regarding the rationale behind technical vocational education and
training and the Pacific Island initiatives. The paper suggests ways in which TVET can
become an equally important component of the total learning system beginning with the
process of vocationalising education. Moreover, quality TVET warrants a holistic and
integrated approach to the teaching and learning process in the classroom and in other
educational settings.
The thesis of this paper is to ‘vocationalise’ education at the early stages of the schooling
system and then based on individual potential, specialise in vocational courses. While the
important terms will be discussed in this paper, it suffices to mention here that
vocationalising education and vocational education are not the same. The former is
concerned with educating the ‘whole person’ by providing life-skills including values
education and preparation for the world of work, self-employment and ongoing learning.
The latter refers to vocational courses or subjects such as catering and Tailoring, Carpentry
and Joinery and Light Engineering.

4 Written for this Report by Associate Professor, Akhilanand Sharma, School of Education, USP
1


BACKGROUND OF TVET IN THE SCHOOL SECTOR
TVET is an important aspect of the total learning package of the child as well as the adult
learner. This view is consistent with Delors’ Report (UNSCO, 1996) that perceives
education as providing the all-round development of a child’s personality. It identifies a
range of learning opportunities that students need to experience in order to be adequately
prepared for active participation in all aspects of living. To achieve this, the Delors’ Report
suggests that the overall education of the learner should be rebuilt around four pillars:
‘learning to know’, ‘learning to do’, ‘learning to live together’ and ‘learning to be’. In this
regard, TVET in the school sector has a crucial as well as a complementary role to play in
preparing an educated citizenry who is more likely to champion “the ideals of peace,
freedom, and social justice” (UNESCO, 1996, p.13).
Similarly, the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, launched
in 2005, the Millennium Development Goals and the Education for All movement express
similar sentiments about TVET giving it the status of the ‘master key’ to social, economic
and political development. Quisumbing (in Prospects, Vol. XXXV, No3, September 2005:
300) emphasizes:
Quality TVET needs a teaching/learning approach that does not stop at knowledge
and information nor at developing skills and competence, but proceeds to
understanding and gaining insights that educates the heart and the emotions and
develops the ability to choose freely and to value, to make decisions and to
translate knowledge and values into action. Values education is a necessary
component of the holistic work education and citizenship education.
Therefore, there is urgency to reconceptualise TVET making it an essential part of the
education curriculum not only of the Pacific island nations (PINs) but also globally.
It is underscored, however, that TVET has suffered from being considered as the fall-back
position for those for those who did not succeed in academic education streams. This
viewpoint has changed considerably now. A major reason for this shift in thinking is the
changing character of work and its impact on social and economic development. All sectors
of employment are now becoming so technologically-based, diverse and dynamically
complex that most unskilled workers find it difficult to obtain gainful employment. Therefore,
TVET is now seen as playing a complementary role in ‘skilling’ primary and secondary
school students and ‘up-skilling’ industry and other workplace employees. TVET can
provide both the link with productive work and motivation for life-long education and
training. It has the capacity to incorporate pacific knowledge, technologies and life-skills as
well as indigenous pedagogy in the learning agendas. In Fiji, for example, TVET was given
impetus when the Fiji Islands Education Commission (1969, p.14) found that the school
curriculum lacked “relevance in many of its subject areas to the local environment and to
local needs”. Despite numerous curriculum reforms promoting vocational education and
training in Fiji as well as other PINs have not yet succeeded sufficiently in enriching their
school curricula with vocational education and the above-mentioned Pacific flavour.
In brief, then, it suffices to mention here that TVET has the potential to contribute to
sustainable development, education for all, knowledge society and citizenship. Phillip
Hughes explains (in Prospects, vol. XXXV, no3, September 2005: 263):
TVET now involves such a variety of approaches, including both formal and
informal education, that it can supplement the formal systems of schools in ways
that will increase their effectiveness. TVET addresses needs that are fundamental
to human motivation and achievement, in particular the capacity of work
productively and creatively.

The Concept of TVET
TVET is a concept that encompasses a diverse array of programmes and activities. It
emphasises both education and training, and extends beyond schools, post-school
institutions and work place enterprises to community-based non-formal education systems.
There is, therefore, a considerable variety of locations in which TVET is pursued.
2

There is also variety in its target clientele, who not only represent a diverse age range -
child to adult - but also have different response-capacities and socio-economic and cultural
backgrounds. In order to address the diverse needs of these clients, TVET offers a
considerable range of programmes across countries as well as within them. The extreme
diversity of TVET programmes is reflected in their forms, structures, educational
technologies, curricula, pedagogy, management, resourcing and funding.
Another important thread that runs through much of the discussion on this topic relates to its
theoretical underpinnings. First, TVET can claim its justification from Dewey’s pragmatist
philosophy. Dewey emphasises that learning should be directly relevant to the active
interests and concerns which pupils have - or will develop in future - in their out-of-school
life, in their private lives and in their future roles as workers and citizens. Secondly, support
for TVET can also be found in the concept of polytechnic education that was inspired by
Marxist principles. This concept seeks to integrate ‘theory’ (academic studies) and ‘practice’
(vocational training), stressing the educative dimensions of both study and work. This
socialist rhetoric has shaped education systems in many developing countries, such as
China, India, Botswana, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. An example of this is ‘education with
production’ in Botswana. The third justification for TVET can be drawn from populist or
egalitarian ideas. Here, the argument mainly rests on the need for equality of educational
opportunity and it opposes any form of elitism. Other motives, such as economic, political,
at both macro, and micro levels (Hoyle, 1986; Sharma, 1999b), have also influenced the
establishment of TVET programmes in many developing countries, including the PINs.

Such issues point to the difficulty in defining TVET. It can mean different things to different
people depending on the perceptions they hold of education, development and
employment. The ambiguous nature of the concept of TVET is further accentuated because
it has overlapped with certain other related concepts, such as non-formal education,
continuing education, adult education and distance learning at various times and locations.
The following UNESCO definition of TVET, however, contributes significantly to our
understanding of the term.
A comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational process
involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related
sciences, and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes and understanding and
knowledge related to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life
(UNESCO, 2002).
From this, wide perspective three particular orientations emerge. The first is concerned with
training for identified jobs. It is closely connected to the ‘human capital development’
approach that is still popular in some countries. The emphasis here is on preparing human
resources for projected employment opportunities. However, jobs do not often materialise,
owing to changing circumstances or the limited number of jobs in the modern wage sector.
The next orientation focuses on job creation. It is largely concerned with an attempt to
prepare human resources for self-owned and self-managed enterprises, especially in the
informal sector. This orientation often fails to realise its full potential because the informal
sector is unable to provide or generate gainful employment opportunities for the many
graduates of TVET programmes. The third orientation, namely on-the-job- training, is
concerned with upgrading the level of available skills by means of pre-service and in-service
training programmes. Such programmes, however, often encounter problems because the
work sector does not keep pace with changes to accommodate the high-level skills
acquired.
3

In response to the rapidly changing nature of the workforce and the skills required to
perform effectively within the changing context, schools are now being called upon to
provide programmes that support greater understanding of the world of work. Such
programmes are to equip students with those skills and abilities that they would need to use
in their working lives. Greater school retention beyond the compulsory years of schooling,
resulting partly from the lack of employment opportunities for early school-leavers, has
added to this imperative. The post-compulsory curriculum, previously designed for a
minority of students who aspired higher education, no longer meets the needs of the
increasing number of students staying on at school to improve their chances of meaningful
and worthwhile employment. In many countries it has been the employers and businesses
themselves that have driven the quest for a more relevant curriculum and the development
of higher skill levels amongst all school-leavers. The UNESCO Second International
Congress on TVET, held in Korea in 1999, called for

A new holistic approach… so that education for the twenty-first century will include all
domains of learning incorporating general and vocational education to enable the
learner to launch into a lifelong continuum of knowledge, values and attitudes, and
competencies and skills (UNESCO, 1999, p4)
TVET programmes are conducted in a variety of institutional locations. The choice of
location depends mainly on the goals that the programmes are intended to achieve. There
are at least three distinct institutional settings. First, there are school-based TVET
programmes. These include initiatives such as the diversification of the whole secondary
school system, the vocationalisation of the school curriculum and introduction of TVET
streams and schools parallel to the dominant academic model. Secondly, there are post-
school TVET institutional programmes. These provide pre-vocational market-oriented
training courses to secondary school graduates. Third, there are the workplace-based
TVET programmes, epitomised historically in apprenticeship systems and undergoing
transformation in the post-industrial era. This type of TVET is found in many countries but is
particularly popular in western nations where there is a substantial degree of industrialized
economy.
Stemming from the socialist ideology, the diversification of the school system attempts to
make structural changes in the school to facilitate the introduction of work-study
programmes. The fundamental thinking behind this move is to implement the overall
ideological goals through the re-orientation of student attitudes to both education and work.
The vocationalisation of the existing school curriculum involves introducing practical,
vocational and technical subjects into the school curriculum. In many countries, vocational
education is introduced as a compulsory component of the school curriculum. In the United
States, for example, high school graduates pick up as many as 20 per cent of their credits
from vocational subjects. Similar programmes exist in Australia (Centre for workplace
learning, 1995) and Great Britain. There is also a tradition of quite separate TVET schools
running alongside the general secondary school. Such programmes generally cater for
early school dropouts who are unable to cope with academic education. Similar
programmes were attempted in some countries of PINs, but the magnet of the academic
schools has affected these initiatives considerably. For example, the Secondary Schools
Community Extension Project (SSCEP) in PNG (Crossley, 1990), the junior secondary
schools in Fiji (Tavola, 1991), the community high schools in Tuvalu (Tewei, 1985) and the
new secondary schools in the Solomon Islands (Thaman, 1989) with a vocational focus now
exist as a poor replica of their of urban secondary counterparts or have been discontinued.
Potential
TVET initiatives in most developing countries stemmed from the realisation that not all
children respond favourably to the formal and academic type of education. It is the minority
of the secondary school-leavers who find either employment or places in tertiary institutions
while the majority struggle to find opportunities for work. The most commonly articulated
goals of technical vocational education and training are listed below:
4

to facilitate economic development by transmitting to local citizens certain values,
knowledge and attitudes that are necessary to perform certain skills in the modern sector
of the economy,
to provide young people with the skills needed for employment in a wide range of job
categories including self-employment and wage employment,
to promote a work ethic and sensitise learners to the importance of practical work skills
and the dignity of manual labour,
to promote sustainable development, save the environment and improve the quality of
living,
to alleviate unemployment as well as poverty,
to reduce the mass movements of school-leavers from rural to urban areas,
to provide an alternative route to higher academic education for early secondary school-
leavers, and
Research on this subject shows that many of these expectations are largely the rhetoric of
programme goals but hardly exist in reality.
Challenges in the Implementation of TVET in the School Sector
The status of TVET amongst students, parents, teachers and the wider community is low in
comparison to that of academic studies and this affect its uptake and acceptance.
Academic education is perceived as paving the pathway to further education for increased
career opportunities and for better financial rewards. As Sharma (1999a) points out that the
graduates of VETP in Fiji neither earn more, nor are more likely to go into technical areas of
the labour market than their counterparts from the formal school system. Therefore, TVET
is perceived by the majority of its stakeholders as a ‘second class’ option and by some as a
temporary diversion from the main route to higher education and modern sector
employment. Any innovation seen in this light has a remote chance of successful
implementation.

Moreover, in terms of a school’s capacity to adopt this innovation, the literature shows that
many vocationally-oriented schools find it extremely difficult to implement a wide range of
complex TVET skills in the classroom. Similarly, several writers suggest that its teachers
are inadequately prepared and the cost of managing it is relatively high. As a solution to the
problem of unemployment, it is ill directed, under-resourced and fails to take into
consideration regional and local variations. TVET reforms have rarely been accompanied
by changes in labour laws, improved salary structures, appropriate recruitment and
selection criteria, human capital development strategies, and the general social and political
frameworks. The low status of TVET is exacerbated by the view held by many, including
policy-makers, that its is less important than other innovations in the education system.

The second perceived limitation concerns the relevance of TVET. Relevance here refers to
what TVET programs can really offer to its clientele. The idea that TVET is important for its
labour market relevance can be discounted, given the contemporary industrial and socio-
economic environment, which are rapidly changing and are dynamically complex. In this
environment, labour market predictability is difficult. Therefore, undertaking human resource
planning forward may not coincide satisfactorily with the changing employment market,
leaving many TVET graduates and their employers disappointed.
5

The third factor that operates against the successful management of TVET programmes
concerns their resourcing. The international literature argues that TVET is more expensive
than academic education. Relatively, the cost of equipping vocational classrooms and
training technical teachers is very high. The lack of resources, underqualified teachers and
the poor management of TVET innovations contribute significantly to their failure or partial
acceptance. Schools with vocational biases have more complicated timetables and a
greater mix of teachers and students. Such factors require high calibre change agents who
understand the factors and themes associated with the successful management and
implementation of planned educational change (Fullan, 1991). The challenge for the
successful implementation of TVET in this context is to develop appropriate societal
knowledge, technologies, skills, values and attitudes, and new policy and financial
commitments, congruent with, and cognizant of, local, regional and global opportunities and
concerns.
TVET: THE FIJI EXPERIENCE
Unlike academic studies, some forms of vocational educational activities were carried out in
the Fiji Islands and other PINs long before the introduction of the Western mode of formal
education. Several studies have shown some of the ways in which members of the
community ensured that their values, skills and attitudes were passed on to the next
generation. This type of education, often referred to as traditional, was then considered
relevant by the community. Basically, it was concerned with the continuity and maintenance
of the community, which involved passing on to young people the knowledge and skills that
they had acquired through many generations. Through legends, observation, imitation and
practice, the younger members of the community developed the appropriate skills and
technologies of the time. The advent of the western mode of education, however, has
largely destroyed these traditional forms of technical and vocational education. Although
some critics could argue that these traditional forms of technical and vocational education
are not suitable for the modern sector economy, there is still a market for items such as
handicrafts and many people are making and selling them for their livelihood.
As mentioned earlier, the 1969 Fiji Education Commission, for example, reported that there
was little relationship between the educational programmes and the world of work. It
recommended the establishment of junior secondary schools with a more vocationally
oriented programme of study. The Commission (1969, p. 53) wrote:
If the importance of the new junior secondary curriculum and the growing number of
secondary technical pre-vocational courses is to be fully appreciated, the development
of some sort of career or vocational guidance is necessary.
The 1969 Commission also felt that principals and career advisers themselves should study
vocational education so that they could facilitate it at the school level. These
recommendations were accepted and junior secondary schools with a vocational education
and training focus were established in key locations throughout Fiji. However, principals and
career advisers were not adequately prepared to facilitate vocational education at the
school level. It is also important to note that the junior secondary initiative, with its emphasis
on vocational education, did not achieve much success against the strong desire for
academic education. In fact, the junior secondary schools, located principally in rural
centres, existed largely as poor replicas of their urban counterparts. Then, because of the
increasing demand to continue beyond the Form 4 level, many of the rural junior secondary
schools added Forms 5 and 6. Thus, these schools have not become technical and
vocational oriented, as was originally envisaged, and the school system continues to remain
largely academic. Historically, TVET programmes at the secondary school level in Fiji have
taken at least two approaches. First, technical subjects such as Woodwork, Metal Work and
Home Economics have been introduced as optional subjects in the secondary school
curriculum. It is expected that, on leaving school, students will have some knowledge of
technical and vocational education that can lead them to employment opportunities and
improved life-skills. Secondly, school-based TVET were established in about 50 selected
6

secondary schools to provide ‘second chance’ education to early school-leavers. Fiji’s
education system, however, is so accustomed to academic education, however, strong
parental pressure for academic credential has made TVET programme a ‘second class’
option rather than a ‘second chance’ education. This can be explained in part by the
difference in salary of blue-collar workers compared to that for white-collar workers. There
are considerable possibilities for salary increases and promotions within the civil service.
Until wages for blue-collar employees are more attractive, the status of TVET will continue
to be below that of academic education.
The fact remains, however, that the inclusion of technical and vocational education courses
in the school curriculum is based on a sound rationale. An important feature of this
vocationalisation of the school curriculum is that it combines with general education and
does not forfeit the possibility of further academic education. However, it does not provide
sufficient training for entry into a particular occupation. Instead, it is a form of ‘vocational-
familiarization’ that may assist students in their future career choices. In our rapidly
changing economy and employment market, it is difficult to prepare students for a particular
job, as on leaving school, the job may not be there. Therefore, it is important to prepare
informed-students who can make productive career choices based on the understanding of
their interests, skills and abilities and the employment areas to which these apply.
Appropriate training can then be provided on the job or through in-service training.
As mentioned earlier, some secondary schools in Fiji also have a TVET programme as a
separate stream within the ambit of the secondary school organisation. This programme
caters for secondary school lower achievers in secondary schools. To enter the
programme, however, they should have completed at least Form 4 of secondary school
education and are in the 15 to 20 year age group. In many cases, such students are unable
to access further academic studies given the intense competition for the limited places
beyond Form 4. In others, they are actively discouraged from continued participation in the
general academic programme due to their low achievement. The separate TVET
programme provides intensive skills training aimed at educating and training students for
paid as well as self-employment. The programme has four courses: Tailoring, Food and
Catering; Carpentry and Joinery; Automotive Engineering and Secretarial Studies. In recent
years, Agricultural Science has been revived and is offered in some schools. A recent study
of the TVET programme indicates that it is perceived largely as a ‘second best’ mode of
education by the majority of students, parents, teachers, educational administrators and
employers. The study argued that, consistent with other developing countries, most Fiji
citizens prefer academic schooling because it is seen to pave the way for greater career
opportunities and higher financial rewards. The TVET programme is seen as a minor
innovation in Fiji’s education system in comparison to other ‘heavyweight’ innovations
(Sharma, 2000).
The study also revealed that before the programme was established, there was inadequate
consideration given to the issues of relevance, clarity and practicality, readiness of the
clientele and availability of suitable resources, including personnel. Many schools initially
accepted it because it came with material resources and personnel. The TVET programme
is virtually an imposed innovation in a ‘top-down’ process. In fact, political, bureaucratic, and
micro-and macro-political perspectives motivated the establishment of the programme at
the school level, in particular, and the system-level in general. Thus the present initiative is
resource-driven and not education-driven.
Continuity and commitment are identified as being the most critical determinants of
successful implementation of any planned educational change. In the case of TVET, the co-
ordinators of the programme said that the leadership of the Ministry of Education officials
was not supportive enough and usually paid lip service to TVET. The teachers and
students at the workshop level said the same thing about their principals who, in turn,
shifted the blame to the course co-ordinators. Consequently, the course co-ordinators,
teachers, students and parents were not adequately prepared to accept the innovative
ideas of TVET programmes. A shortage of adequately qualified staff and a lack of
appropriate functional administrative procedures have also been identified in the TVET
section at the Ministry. The effective implementation of TVET programmes was hampered
by a lack of sound functional administration procedures, such as record-keeping, allocation
of resources and monitoring at both Ministry and school levels. There were also few career
7

structures and promotional opportunities for teachers within the programme. These
conditions led to low self-esteem and self-image among teachers. With such feelings, it is
understandable that teachers do not promote the programme with enthusiasm and
commitment (Sharma, 1999a). TVET should be taught with a learner-centred focus.
However, teacher-centred approaches tended to characterise the teaching and learning
process in TVET.
There was also an absence of community participation (students, teachers, parents and
employers) in decision-making and the teaching-learning processes of the programme. This
‘top-down’ decision-making strategy was one of the reasons for the lack of a basic
understanding of the programme at school and community levels. Thus, the programme did
not get much community support. This situation is not unusual in similar initiatives
elsewhere in the developing world. In Fiji, schools look largely to their communities to
support them in terms of providing the material resources that their budgetary allocation
cannot meet adequately. Participation in school policy-making, curriculum decisions and
teaching-learning processes was strictly limited. This lack of participation was one of the
major reasons that many members of the school community did not really understand what
the TVET programme in their school was all about. Neither were the divisional and district
education officers fully committed to TVET, despite being in a position to facilitate greater
community awareness and support for it.
Most of the students enrolled in the programme were from working class families. These
students were likely to get into a track leading to lower paid jobs. Most students from higher
socio-economic groups were in mainstream education and were more likely to enter
professions such as medicine, law, accountancy and management in the private and public
sectors. The programme, therefore, further reinforced the existing socio-economic
inequalities. Therefore, TVET programmes could continue as a ‘second best’ option in
secondary schools.
A further observation is that, with the limited number of places available in TVET
programmes, students with relatively high academic qualifications were increasingly being
enrolled. Therefore, a large number of early secondary school-leavers were denied the
opportunity of a second chance in education. Give their growing exclusion, the programme
was not achieving the purpose for which it was created.
FUTURE DIRECTION
Several writers have advocated a ‘bottom-up’ approach wherein teachers, administrators
and the members of the school community are accorded greater opportunity for
participation in the decision-making and learning processes. Such an approach has a
number of benefits. First, it generates a more relevant teaching and learning programme
and addresses the developmental needs of the school community. Second, community
involvement in schooling facilitates an improved learning environment for students. Third,
community participation in school affairs provides an opportunity for the members of the
school community to learn about TVET as well as other school programmes. Finally, given
the multicultural context of Fiji, the involvement of community in schooling makes it possible
for policy-makers, administrators and teachers to accommodate the interests of various
social and economic groups of the population in education policy, programmes and
projects.
A second notable suggestion for educational policy-makers concerns the provision of
ongoing context-based and centre-based staff development programmes for administrators
and teachers. Such staff development programmes would prepare teachers and all those
involved to manage major transformations in an educational setting that is characterised by
a dynamically complex environment and in the face of a somewhat unknowable future.
Further, well-informed teachers and administrators can promote the innovation, its vision,
mission, values and goals.
To establish these in Fiji’s school-based TVET, it is necessary for those leading it to be
convinced at a personal level about the value of TVET. Once convinced, they would invest
more effort in bringing their colleagues, students and the members of the school community
along with them. In this way, it may be possible that their most vociferous opponents among
colleagues and school community become their strongest supporters. Research findings
show that Fiji’s TVET programmes did not have many committed leaders and teachers
8

(Sharma, 1989; 1999a). Therefore, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that policy-
makers seriously consider introducing ongoing staff development programmes for its
administrators and teachers. This suggestion is made on the grounds that the success of
any planned educational change rests not so much on the abundance of material and
financial resources but more on well-informed and talented human resources.
A third broad suggestion for policy-makers emerges from the TVET innovation itself. It is
difficult for such initiatives to realise their full potential when academic education remains
the preferred system and promises greater career opportunities and social and economic
rewards. Literature suggests that, in many developing countries with a dualistic system of
education, where academic and technical and vocational education run parallel to each
other, the latter is often rejected. There is a less promising future for Fiji’s school-based
TVET programme while it operates alongside mainstream schooling. In the light of this
argument and the existing literature on TVET from developing countries, three
recommendations are made.
The first is to integrate these school-based TVET programs within mainstream schooling.
The second is to establish separate Quality TVET Centres for early school-leavers in
various rural and urban centres. And finally to rationalize the post-secondary TVET
institutes including, in Fiji’s case FIT, TPAF and other private providers.
The first recommendation implies that the separate courses currently offered in TVET as
well as any other important skill-based courses identified, should be included in the pre-
vocational courses presently offered in Fiji’s primary and secondary schools. In accordance
with the international literature on TVET, these pre-vocational courses should not be
perceived as providing sufficient training for direct entry into any occupation. They should
be taken as a broad familiarisation program, introducing and developing a range of skills
that may be useful in subsequent training or for making a more informed choice about such
training. To facilitate this, it is suggested that all students be required to study technical
subjects in the course of their primary and secondary education. These technical subjects
should be accorded equal value with all other subjects and be assessed and reported. At
the primary school level, such program should be experiential and promote familiarisation
with the nature and purpose of work in all its forms, and with the broad range of work skills
required to function effectively in the working world. Specialised studies should be
introduced at an appropriate level within the secondary school curriculum, once students
have had sufficient opportunity to identify their potential and preferred study pathways. In
the early years of schooling, the technical areas studied could be derived from those
industries located locally and those that can serve as rich resources for learning and
practical experience. In rural areas, in particular, the study of agriculture can provide a
sound basis for an understanding of how to meet basic subsistence needs and also the
importance of agriculture as a source of enterprise and income within the economy.
Although constraints, such as the shortage of teachers, equipment, material resources, and
appropriate opportunities for practical work, along with the dilemma of the low status of pre-
vocational courses, will inevitably continue, greater progress will be realistically possible
under this new arrangement. A cost-effective strategy that could be considered for adoption
in Fiji is a cluster secondary school system. Under this scheme, a number of secondary
schools in a neighbourhood could share technical facilities such as workshops, equipment
and specialist teachers that could be located at a central institution. This will allow the
introduction of a greater variety of pre-vocational courses in the secondary school program.
Another strategy could be the offering of TVET programs in blocks of time, such as one-
week intensive program rather than one or two weekly programmed-lessons over a term,
semester or year. With the development of stronger community relations, it may be possible
to negotiate the use of the facilities of business and industry to further support contextual
learning. In the tourism and hospitality areas, for example, schools located within tourism
areas could negotiate partnership with local hotels and tourism facilities.
9

In the light of scarcity – time, personnel and resources – it is difficult to introduce a range of
specific vocational education courses at the primary or secondary school levels. Therefore,
it is suggested that only one TVET course, namely ‘Technical Studies’, be offered in primary
and secondary schools during the compulsory years of schooling. The current pre-
vocational courses such as Agriculture, Woodwork, Home Economics, Metalwork,
Automotive Engineering and Technical Drawing are to be incorporated as modules within
Technical Studies. The amount of time available for these studies is to be increased
progressively over the different levels of schooling.
As shown in Figure 1.2, the following is a possible approach:
• At the primary school level, three modules – Woodcraft, Home Economics and
Gardening – form the basis of the Technical Studies course. These modules would
support the development of basic life skills and introduce the nature of vocational
studies.
• At the secondary school level, modules such as Agriculture, Home Science, Carpentry
and Joinery, Light Engineering, Information Technology, Metalwork, Plumbing, Electrical
Work, Forestry, Fishery, Tourism and Fiji Studies are to be included in the Technical
Studies Course. Students are to select about three to five modules in Forms 1-4, about
three to four in Forms 5-6 and one or two in Form 7. These modules would familiarise
students with technical and vocational education and skills that they may like to pursue
in their future careers. These modules will further develop basic life skills.
• Other mainstream subjects such as English, Accounting, Management, Arts and Craft,
Music and Sports are to reinforce vocational skills where possible.
• This proposed model is to be based on a spiral curriculum model.
The second recommendation concerns the early school-leavers. To some extent, this
problem can be addressed with some creativity in the proposed quality TVET centres
(QTVETC), where the focus should be on the preparation of human resources capable of
finding wage employment or generating self-employment enterprises. The QTVETC should
be managed in partnership with employers and the members of the local community. It is
suggested that QTVETC provide a ‘basket of skills’ so that those enrolling can select from a
variety of available vocations. In addition to the technical and vocational education subjects
already offered in schools, it is suggested that the QTVETC take a modular approach as
suggested above for the primary and secondary schools. They should also include studies
that ensure the continued development of language, arts and numeracy skills, scientific
understanding, and health and personal development to ascertain that social, emotional
and physical developmental needs of students are addressed. Moreover, the program
should facilitate the re-discovery and development of Pacific knowledge and skills as well as
indigenous modes of learning.
It is emphasised that the proposed QTVETC should have the capacity to enrol students at
whatever their level of primary or secondary school attainment. In this way, they would be
able to address the plight of early school-leavers who are currently denied entry into
selected TVET Centres, such as the Fiji Institute of Technology, that have minimum
qualification requirements. Research evidence and the submissions made to Fiji Islands
Education Commission 2000 have identified key vocational areas that need to be
developed in the education sector (Sharma, 2000). These included the areas of Information
Technology, Fisheries, Marine Studies and Aquaculture, the Visual, Arts and Media, and
Sport and Recreation. It is recognised that it is not possible for all schools or vocational
centres to offer studies across this broad spectrum of vocational areas.
However, a strategy for their progressive implementation could be the establishment of
special interest secondary schools (either self-identified or designated) that focus on studies
in one of these areas and take the lead in the development of curriculum and programmes
such as sports. Obviously this has implications for resources and personnel, but targeted
resourcing for establishment and development could fast-track new programmes.


10

Figure 1.2: Technical and Vocational Education and Training
W O R K P L A C E
Tertiary

SPECIALISATION
Technical &
E.g. USP, FIT



Vocational
and TPAF
Institutes




1 or 2 Modules
Quality
from shown for
Secondary
Technical

Forms 1-4
Form 7
Vocational
Education
and
Training
3 or4 4 Modules
Centres
Four modules from
Secondary
those shown for Forms 1-4

Forms 5-6

About 5 Modules (selected from)
Secondary

Forms 1-4
Agriculture, Information Technology,
Carpentry & Joinery, Light Engineering,
Home Science, Electrical Work, Plumbing,
Fishery, Forestry, Tourism, Fiji Studies
BROAD BASED
(Traditional Cultures)
3 Modules
Primary
Classes 1-6

Adapted from Sharma (1989) P.124

11

Post-Secondary TVET
The TVET program at the secondary level and in the proposed QTVETC must also provide
the foundation for further education and training in tertiary institutions that are responsible
for preparing students for employment. At present, TVET at this level is provided by a
number of institutions, such as the Fiji Institute of Technology (FIT), the Training
Productivity Authority of Fiji (TPAF), and the Fiji College of Agriculture (FCA). The main
concern at this level relates to the scarcity of resources, including financial and quality
human resources. One of the concerns in staffing relates to the difficulties of attracting and
retaining quality staff, particularly in skilled areas where there are few qualified local
personnel, such as in Information Technology, Building, Civil Engineering, Electronics
Engineering and Mechanical Engineering. The TVET post-secondary institutions are not
sufficiently attractive to lure skilled professionals away from the private sector or to retain
bright young graduates. The institutions are also strapped financially. They are mainly
funded from two sources: a block grant from Government, which provides two-thirds of the
income, and the fees obtained from students. This current revenue is not sufficient to
provide attractive remuneration packages neither to staff, or adequate and well-equipped
training facilities nor to fund future growth, research and development. Entrepreneurial
activities and donations in cash and kind that are received from time to time generate small
additional funds but they are not guaranteed income. It is notable that a comparative
analysis of the Government funding information in 2000 indicates a contribution per student
enrolled at the University of the South Pacific of $5,712 compared to that at TPAF of $2,131
(Fiji Institute of Technology, 2000). USP attracts 2.7 times more Government funding than
its TVET counterpart. This is clearly an inequitable situation. It is not suggested that USP
should receive less funding, rather that TVET should attract at least an equivalent amount,
given its importance in supporting human capital development in the country.
There is also a need for institutions, such as the FIT and TPAF, to develop a more
collaborative and better working relationship with the other levels of education, especially
the secondary level. Secondary school students need career counseling to assist them with
the selection of appropriate programs that suit their abilities, interests and aspirations.
TVET prepares students for the world of work and, therefore, it is critically important for
these institutions to develop partnership with the industrial, commercial, and private sectors
as well as with communities and employers. This will ensure relevance and appropriateness
of the programs on the one hand and provide a mechanism for supporting and monitoring
programs, courses and activities on the other. Better use of information technologies can
facilitate the establishment of networks for mutual participatory, collaborative and
consultative processes and for sharing experiences, knowledge and materials.
The Australian concept of ‘workplace learning for schools’ (Centre for workplace learning,
1995) is an interesting one and the lessons learnt from it can be successfully applied the
TVET programs in PINs. Workplace learning programmes are a method of delivering
vocational education in which substantial learning and assessment occur in the workplace.
In this model, learning involves a combination of on-and and off-the-job training and the
local employers endorse and accept learning outcomes. The key to the success of this
initiative depends largely on the school-employer partnership in which employers take
ownership of the decisions taken. Moreover, they contribute financially and in kind to ensure
the sustainability of the programme. This approach is now being successfully employed in
Palau

Competency-Based Education and Training
Competency-based education and training (CBET) is now used as an important strategy in
most technical and vocational education and training programs. It not only promotes the
quality of the programs but ensures their sustainability in today’s dynamically complex
learning and working environment. Consistent with the rationale behind TVET, CBET prime
focus is on lifelong learning, holistic and integrated pedagogy, whole-person development,
multi-skilling, flexibility and world class workforce. With properly constructed ‘bench marks’,
CBET has the potential to produce intellectual capital that is competent in terms of what the
industry or employer needs. Some of these competencies include efficiency, effectiveness
and quality performance.
Some countries such as Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom have introduced
competency approaches in their education and training programs. For example, in
Australia, the graduates from its competency-based program have both the ability to

12

perform in a given context and the capacity to transfer knowledge and skills to new tasks
and situations (The Mayer Committee, 1992). In Britain, the National Vocational
Qualifications include core skills such as communication, numerics, information technology,
interpersonal competence and problem-solving (Hyland, 1994). Similarly Australia’s
National Training Board endorses a broader view of key competencies and New Zealand
identified essential skills (Harris et al., 1995). Owing to the success of the competency
based regime, many countries have begun to adapt CBET in their education and training
programs. The education and training institutions in Fiji and the Pacific island countries
must introduce competency framework in their education and training programs. The Pacific
Islands Forum has a regional vocational qualifications framework and it is expected that the
Pacific island countries would benefit from it.
Workplace learning for schools
Several studies argue that “training in the private sector - by private employers and in
private training institutions - can be most effective and efficient to develop the skills of the
workforce” (World Bank, 1991, p.7). The majority of private businesses in Fiji, however, are
not large enough to have their own in-house training sections. Nevertheless, they can work
in partnership with FIT, TPAF and other governmental and NGOs.
The Australian concept of ‘workplace learning for schools’ (Centre for workplace learning,
1995) is an interesting one and the lessons learnt from it can be successfully applied in Fiji’s
TVET programs. Workplace learning programs are a method of delivering vocational
education in which substantial learning and assessment occur in the workplace. In this
model, learning involves a combination of on-the-job and off-the-job training and the local
employers endorse and accept learning outcomes. The key to the success of this initiative
depends largely on the school-employer partnership in which employers take the ownership
of the decisions taken. Moreover, they contribute financially and in-kind to ensure the
sustainability of programs.
CONCLUSION
In this chapter the conceptual basis of TVET was looked at. In doing so, it became clear
that the concept of education throughout life, with its focus on flexibility, diversity and
availability in different times and at different places, integrated approach to teaching and
learning process, whole-person development, multi-skilling and preparation of competent
workforce, needs an educational paradigm that re-conceptualizes education and training in
a holistic fashion beginning from pre-school to primary and secondary education through to
post-secondary and tertiary education. Therefore, it was difficult to examine the functions of
FIT, TPAF and other TVET providers in isolation. In this concluding section a holistic
education paradigm is recommended. The second issue relates to the introduction of
competency-based regime in all our education and training programs. It is reiterated that
this regime will prepare graduates who would be able to perform in harmony with the culture
and work environment of the workplace. Obviously, there is need for human resource
development to cope with the challenging demands of education and training with CBET
regime. Thirdly, the education and training providers need to function in an environment of
partnership and mutuality. With CBET in place, this relationship would avoid unnecessary
duplication of courses and programs, make the country’s education and training programs
more cost-effective, inculcate the habit of sharing and caring and facilitate the transfer of
credit from one institution to the other.
Finally, as the UNESCO’s (1996) Report of the International Commission on education for
the twenty-first century suggests, there is a need to authentically establish regional and
international co-operation in TVET. Consistent with the view expressed in the Report the
international co-operation ought to be seen in the context of partnership rather than aid.
This view will undoubtedly facilitate the spirit of partnership in action and the development
an informed society, especially about the technologies available in and beyond Pacific
island countries.


13


C h a p t e r


TVET Programmes
2

This chapter briefly summaries the TVET programmes in Fiji. Firstly, it looks at TVET
administration under different Government Ministries and organisations. Then, it looks at
the various types and locations of TVET. It begins by discussing the secondary school
based programs and then it goes on to look briefly at the community and private based. The
chapter concludes by talking about different TVET teacher preparation institutions.

2.1 TVET administration
TVET system with its recent structure comes under a number of government ministries. The
Ministry of Education looks after the school-based TVET systems both in the formal
academic and the post secondary vocational programme either school based or stand
alone type. FIT under its semi-autonomous arrangement comes under the Education
Ministry. Monfort Boys Town is classified under the private vocational but is currently
receiving an annual funding grant from the Ministry of Education.
The Advanced Vocational Training (AVT) looks after the Non-formal sector for short term
training. AVT is housed under the Ministry of Education TVET Section but funded by the
Ministry of Planning and National Development under the Integrated Human Resources
Development Programme (IHRD).
TPAF comes under the Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment. Several
youth centres around the country like the Nasau Youth Centre in Sigatoka is supported and
funded by the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Productivity under their Department of Youth
Training Scheme Programme.
Private TVET vocational training institutions like APTECH Computer School, are sectioned
under the Ministry of Education for registration and recognition certification but are not
closely monitored and sustained by the Ministry. Other private TVET providers with
agriculture based-training like Tutu Vocational Centre, are supported and funded by the
Ministry of Agriculture. The Fiji College of Agriculture is a government agricultural institution
and provides a Diploma in Tropical Agriculture that is accredited by the University of the
South Pacific.
The Ministry of Forestry provides forestry skills training at the Forestry School in Colo-i-
Suva and TITC in Nasinu. They also provide short up-skilling training courses for those
already working in the forestry/timber industry.
USP’s School of Education and the Fiji College of Advanced Education provide TVET
teachers training programs at the certificate, diploma and degree levels for those who wish
to pursue teaching as a career. These programs provide technology-based knowledge
rather than industry-based training. USP is managed and funded by 12 Pacific island
countries however the Fiji Government contributes a large portion of the USP Fund. FCAE
is the Fiji Government’s teacher training institution and is managed by the Ministry of
Education.
Other special skill training programs such as nursing and other paramedics are not included
in this report

14

Based on the discussion above, the structure of the TVET systems is shown in Figure 2.1
Managing Authorities
Figure 2.1 Managing Authorities

Fiji

Government



Ministry of Youth &
Ministry of
Productivity

Education


Ministry of
Labour
Youth Centres


Ministry of Forestry
TVET Section

TPAF


Forestry School
TITC


Ministry of
FIT-
Agriculture
Skills Training,
Preservice

Tutu Voc

Pr imary School
Secondary School-
Vocational Centres
AVT- Non- Formal
Special Education-
Private Providers-
-Informal Skills Training
School Based Voc-
Stand – Alone
-Skills Training
Skills Training
Skills Training
TVET Skills Training
Skills Training

(Source: drawn from the document provided my MOE, 2007)
TVET Characteristics
Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) comes under one of the sections of
the Ministry of Education with a total of twelve professional staff, four support staff, one
Principal Education Officer, a Program Manager and a Director. The section comprises
Academic TVET, the vocational TVET and the Advanced Vocational Training with a
Nutrition Department
The team coordinates technical courses of their specialty and liaises directly with their
teachers in the secondary school systems. TVET staffs also carry out teacher appointments
and coordinate the writing of the curriculum by having a working committee that actually
writes the curriculum and a national advisory curriculum committee that vets and amends
curriculum changes. This committee comprises all TVET stakeholders including industry,
unions, teachers, principals, technical advisers and tertiary institutions.
MOE and its TVET section has direct links to other tertiary institutions such as FIT, TPAF,
FCAE, FCA and other private TVET providers. This is either through franchising
arrangement or representation on their council and sub-committee meetings. However,
owing to the status of some institutions, MOE does not allow have free access to their
routine matters.
Some major TVET issues that need to be addressed include:

15

TPAF come under the Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment but
provides vocational education and training. TPAF has its own training section however
it should concentrate more on in-service rather than pre-service training.
FIT under the semi-autonomous arrangement with MOE needs to refocus its vision,
mission, values and goals on the education and training or skills needed by the
employment sector, including the industries. Its sudden expansion of programs without
proper survey and planning has made the institution more skill supply-oriented rather
than demand-driven.
The secondary-school based TVET centres offer franchised courses from FIT and the
trade skill tests from TPAF. Owing to merger material resources and under-qualified
teachers or instructors the majority of who do not have much industry experience, the
franchise courses are of poor quality. Without these courses, however, it would be
difficult to establish relative standard of courses provided by various centres or
schools.
There is an increase in demand for the registration of private vocational institutions or
schools.
The lack of recognition of the technical and vocational education and skill training at
the national level especially in the industrial sector has resulted in low national
budgetary allocation and prioritization.
TVET Training and funding are not streamlined under the Ministry of Education. Other
government ministries are also providing TVET Training with a separate budget
allocation.
The training institutions are competing against each other for skill training activities,
survival and limited resources available.
Reflections from various industries show that the graduates, especially from FIT,
recruited by them lack practical industry experience and specific related skills
(Industry-link Report, 2004).
Private providers are virtually left on their own with little supervision from MOE after it
had registered them to operate the TVET program. Consequently, they often introduce
new training packages without prior approval from MOE.
The non- formal vocational training sector is becoming increasing important after the
endorsement of the Social Justice Act by the Government. However, the section needs
a lot financial and technical support as well as qualified instructors or teachers to
conduct vocational education and training classes in the remote and rural areas.
Enterprise Education, an old education concept, has been revived in the school-based
TVET program in order to equip the students with business related life-skills.
AusAid through the FESP Project is providing technical expertise to help the officials of
TVET section of the MOE, and teachers in different pilot schools.
Currently the industries do not contribute much in the preparation of TVET education
and training coordinators. While the concepts of work attachment and apprenticeship
are provided for in the respective Acts, they need to be formalized and the
Government and the industries must be fully committed to them. An Industry Compact
document signed by all parties is necessary to establish a good working relationship
between the TVET education providers and the industries.
Normally schools and teachers make their own arrangements for student work
attachment. However, this ad-hoc arrangement does not often favour the students on
practical attachment because they are often treated as the labour force rather than as
students receiving work-based or industry-based practical experiences of the school-
based theoretical work.

TABLE 2.1: TVET PROVIDERS


16

Level & Type
Entry Requirements
Duration
Final
Qualification

(e.g. Gr. 10
(months,
examination
granted
completion)
years)
(internal,
external)
A. Formal TVET
Forms 3 to 6
4 years
FJC & FSLC
FJC & FSLC
Middle level
Certificates
[TVET Academic
Strand]
[TVET Academic
Form 7

FSFE
Certificates
Strand]
2.Post-secondary Form 4 and Form 6
2 years
Internal
MOE
2.1 [Normal
dropouts of the formal
Vocational
Vocational Training] system
Certificates
2.2: FIT Franchised Form 6 completed
2 years
FIT Exams
Trade
Certificate
2.3. TPAF-
Form 4 standard
2 years
TPAF Trade
Class 3
Vocational Training
Test
Certificates
B. Non-formal
School leavers
2 weeks to 1
Practical
AVT
[Advanced
month
Assessment
Certificate of
Vocational Training]
training
method-
Completion
Competency
C. Private
Completion of Basic
8 weeks to 2
Internal exam
Certificates,
Vocational
Education preferably at
years
and franchised
Diplomas &
Providers
form 6 level
exams for
Degrees
franchised
centres

Source: MOE / TVET Annual Plan 2006


2.3 Types TVET Programs
Under several ministries three types of TVET system exist in Fiji:
1. Technical Formal Education-pre-vocational courses- Academic, general or formal
TVET courses/subjects (Forms 3 to 7) under M0E; Vocational Education and
Training; Fiji Secondary School-based Vocational program -Under TVET section of
the M0E; School-Based and Stand Alone type, Post Secondary and Pre-service
vocational education and training – under FIT; In-service Vocational Education and
Training, Apprenticeship etc. – under TPAF.
2. Advanced Vocational Training: Non-Formal Training Sector
3. Private vocational education providers, for example, APTECH, NZPTC, CQU, etc.

Therefore, not all TVET training providers come under the Ministry of Education. TPAF
come under the Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment. Other providers
come under the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forest.
2.3.1 School Based
2.3.1.1 Formal TVET Education-Pre-Vocational Courses

Figure 2.2: Structure Diagram of TVET within MOE

Ch
C ief Execut
u ive
v Officer,

Permanent Secretary for Education
MOE


Dire
Di ct
re or
ct , T
or
V
, T ET
Other Departments
t

Enterprise Edu
d ca
c tion
o
FESP Consultan
l
t

17
Technica
nic l
Voca
o
ti
t onal
n
PEO T
h i
l Ed
ti
PEO V
ti
l Ad
A
d
















Source: MoE/TVET Annual Report 2006
Technical Formal Education-pre-vocational courses in secondary schools are offered as
one of the subjects to students of Forms 3 to 7. One of the pre-vocational subjects is
compulsory for Forms 3 and 4 students. In a 40-45 per periods per week timetable, five are
allocated for one of these subjects with the theory: practice balance ratio of 60:40
respectively. The subjects presently offered include Agricultural Science, Office Technology
and Basic Technology (either Home Economics or Industrial Arts). In Forms 5 and 6 these
subjects are optional and students may select one or more of these. Students who are slow
learners or are at the risk of dropping out at the Forms 5 and 6 levels are often encouraged
to take the vocational strand providing TVET the notion of a ‘second class’ option. They are
provided with intensive semi-job skill training for two years and at the end are awarded
vocational attainment certificates by the MOE. Virtually all of the 165 secondary schools
provide pre-vocational courses and students appear for National external examinations at
the end of Form 4 (Fiji Junior Examination), Form 6 (Fiji School Leaving Certificate) and
Form 7 (Fiji Seventh Form Examination) levels.
Table 2.2: Summary Enrolment – Primary, Secondary, Academic & Vocational Centre Levels

Program Type
Gender
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Total Secondary M/F
66,905
65,935
67,212 68,178 68,774 69394
69597
Total Primary
M/F
149,912 142,913 142,106
142,781
143,858
144,135
144,328
Total Vocational M/F
1,730
2, 220
2,505
2,319
1,974
2,327
2,418
Grand

220547
213825
216610
218349
Total


213069

215281
217861

Source: MOE Annual Reports 2006
GRAPH 2.1: Examination pass rates for FJC and FSLC
fjc &fhj intake

100.00%
90.00%
80.00%
FJC & FSLC Intake
70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
FJC-% Passes
FSLC--% Passes
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 20
1803 2004 2005 2006


(Source: MOE / TVET Annual Plan)
Graph 2.1 shows that the performance of students in the two national external examinations
has gradually improved over the years. However, the majority of the students do not qualify
to enter USP or other overseas universities. Moreover, those selected follow a narrow
pathway to attain a degree in the ‘white-collar’ employment. The question of what happens
to the rest of students is a national concern. It is also important to underscore that many
graduates from USP and other tertiary institutions still remain as ‘educated unemployed’ for
several years. This trend does not augur well for personal as well as national development.
To avoid this scenario, it is suggested that technical and vocational education subjects
should be made compulsory at Forms 5, 6 and 7 levels as well. Otherwise graduates or
dropouts at different levels in the education system will be at risk of joining the ranks of
unemployed.
2.3.1.2 Curriculum
For the last five year the demand for TVET in secondary schools has increased
considerably. This is owing to the introduction TVET subjects as compulsory at Form 3 and
4 levels in 2003. Now with the nationwide implementation of the policy a large number of
students are taking TVET subjects. From this trend, it is evident that parents and students
are beginning to realize the need to acquire trade skill courses at the secondary school
level.
Currently, 16 TVET subjects offered in secondary schools. These include Agricultural
Science, Computer Education, Office Technology, Home Economics, Clothing & Textile,
Food and Nutrition, Apparel & Design, Food & Technology, Technical Drawing, Graphic
Arts, Wood Work, Wood Technology, Engineering Technology, Metal Work, Technical
Drawing & Design and Introduction to Technology. Perhaps there is a need to rationalize
some of these courses and avoid any duplication of subject contents. As suggested in the
Fiji Islands Education Commission Report 2000, it is necessary to introduce modular
approach using the spiral curriculum mode of development. As the relevant literature
articulates, TVET programs are expensive. This is because TVET courses need expensive
equipment, facilities, resources and highly trained and experienced teachers or instructors.
Thus rationalization of the existing courses is exceedingly necessary in order to avoid
duplication, improve the effectiveness of TVET subjects and operate within the limited
resources and funding available.
Table 2.3: General Daily School Time Table
Period
Time Duration
Time Range
1 45minutes
8.30am
-9.15am
2 45minutes
9.15am
-10.00am
3 45minutes
10.00am
– 10.45am
Morning Break – 10 to 15 minutes
4 45minutes
11.00am

11.45am
5 45minutes
11.45am

12.30pm
6 45minutes
12.30pm

1.15pm
Lunch Break –45 to 60 Minutes
7
45minutes
2.00pm – 2.45pm
8 45minutes
2.45pm
– 3.30pm

Source: MOE Annual Reports, 2006

On daily business, the average classroom in Fiji starts their classes at 8.30am and finishes
at 3.30 pm. The teachers are expected to begin classes at 8.00am till 4.30pm. With an
average of 40-45 minutes periods for most of the secondary and primary schools in Fiji, one
can only complete a round of 8 to 9 periods in a day. Most tertiary institutions have one-
hour periods. Then an average of 15 minutes is allowed for a morning break with another
60 minutes given for lunch. At the end of the 8th period a student/class should achieve a
maximum effective contact in the teaching learning process time of 360 minutes. However,

19

for schools where students move from one class to another, there will be an allowance of 5
minutes movement time for both the students and teachers. Again, there are unexpected
disturbances within the schools itinerary like, visitors visiting the schools, school bazaar,
other fundraising activities, teachers/students coming late to classes after morning tea and
lunch, school assemblies, form meetings, house meetings, etc. For a total of 360 minutes,
the following minutes is subtracted to account for the disturbances: 15minutes for break,
60munites for lunch, and 35minutes for the total 5 minutes movement allowance for the 8
periods daily, 20 minutes is approximated for other related school disturbances. This gives
the total wastage time of 130 minutes or 36.1% within a day and for the five working days it
accumulates to a total of 650 minutes or approximately 10.83 hours wastage in one week.
Therefore, on the annual wastage ratings, 10.83 hours multiply by the total effective days of
211 gives a total of 2,285.13 wastage hours.
In brief then, there is lot time wastage in the current school system and there must be some
ways to alleviate the situation in order to boost the production output of each individual for
the good of the schools and the nation at large. (Source: MOE School Report).

2.3.1.3 Vocational Education and Training
Technical and Vocational Education Training is a two-year program that is offered in
technical and vocational centres. These are either stand-alone centres (three) or are
attached to secondary schools and currently there are 59 secondary school-based centres.
Post Form 4 students are normally enrolled in this program and take two two-year TVET
courses that prepare them for wage or self-employment. The courses include Agriculture,
Office Technology, Carpentry and Joinery; Automotive Engineering and Catering &
Tailoring. The usual theory practical ratio in these courses is 25:75 respectively. At the end
of the two year program graduates must pass internally set practical and theoretical
examinations set by teachers at the centres in order to receive a Fiji TVET Certificate in
their field of specialization.

The Franchise Arrangement
Thirty eight TVET centres also have “franchise” arrangements with FIT for trade certificate
courses and with TPAF for Class 3 trade test qualification. It should be noted that TPAF has
no franchise arrangement with vocational schools. TPAF only allows those vocational
students who have attended 2 years full time vocational study in a particular trade at such
schools or vocational centres to sit for the Class III Trade Test Exam.
The following programs are offered through the FIT franchised scheme:
1.
Trade Certificate in Agro Engineering
2.
Trade Certificate in Commercial Baking
3.
Trade Certificate in Cookery
4.
Certificate in House Keeping
5.
Trade Certificate in Food service
6.
Trade Certificate in Welding Fabrication
7.
Trade Certificate in Carpentry & Joinery or Class 3 Trade Certificate
8.
Trade Certificate in Automotive Engineering
9.
Certificate in Applied Wood Technology (Forestry Product for Value Adding)
Most teachers teaching TVET subjects obtain their certificate or diploma teacher training
qualification from the Fiji School of Advanced Education. Some TVET teachers also receive
their International Diploma in Tertiary Teaching from FIT. Some also acquire degree
qualifications in vocational education and training from USP or other overseas universities.
However, most teachers or instructors in these centres do not have industry experience as
well as trade certificates or diplomas from FIT or other similar tertiary institutions. These
qualifications are necessary to facilitate TVET courses or subjects effectively.
Table 2.4: Total number of Vocational Centres in [%] doing vocational courses
Courses
Schools (%) 
1. Agriculture
16
2. Automotive Engineering
44
3. Carpentry & Joinery
49

20

4. Catering
45
5. Tailoring
41
6. Beauty & Therapy
8
7. Welding & Fabrication
5
8. Office Technology 26

[Source: MOE /TVET Vocational, 2006]
Table 2.5: Vocational Students Enrolment 1999 –2005 from the 65 centres
Prog
Gender
2000
2001
2002
20003
2004
2005 2006
2007
Type
TVET
Males 1,186 1,467 1,705 1,536 1,374 1389 1672 1858
Voc
Females
544 753 790 783 600 766
746
973
Sub Total
1,730
2, 220
2,505
2,319
1,974
2355 2418
2831

[Source: MOE /TVET Vocational, 2006]
There is a gradual increase of student enrolment in the TVET program since 2000. Graph
2.2 shows this trend. The graph also shows there is still gender discrimination in student
enrolment. This is because the male students there have greater options to choose from
than their female counterparts. For example, the traditional attitude that Carpentry and
Joinery is for boys and Catering and Tailoring for girls still seems to exist. However, there is
some shift in this mode of thinking and boys, for example have begun to take Catering and
Tailoring and girls subjects such as agriculture and Light Engineering. While the enrolment
gap between boys and girls may continue to prevail, it is imperative to advocate the notion
that TVET courses are designed for all students of both the genders.
Graph 2.2: Total Vocational Graduates, Total Male & Females Graduates 
2500
 
2000
 
Total Voc Graduates
 
1500
Total Male Voc
 
1000
Graduates
 
Total Female Voc
500
 
Gaduates
 
0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
 
Source: Vocational, TVET section, 2007]


Table 2.6: MOE Budget Allocation for TVET - 2000 to 2006

Years
MOE Budget [$]million
% of MOE Budget spent on TVET
2000 179,694,300
0.71%
2001 178,232,500
0.67%
2002 217,361,100
0.70%
2003 221,478,600
0.62%
2004 239,983,600
0.70%
2005 266,000,000
0.65%
2006 301,185,600
0.56%

[Source: MOE Annual Report, 2006, pp 23,]

Table 2.6 shows that the budget allocation for TVET is insignificance when compared with
that of the other sectors of education. This shows the lack of the Government commitment
on technical and vocational education. Sharma (2000) describes Fiji’s TVET as a
‘lightweight’ innovation. On the other hand formal academic education continues to be the
‘heavyweight’ innovation and attracts the large portion of the education budget. This is
perhaps the main reason why TVET is still regarded as the ‘second class’ option by the
majority of the stakeholder community. There is, therefore, an urgent need to reconsider the
issues of funding and commitment if the desire to promote TVET is authentic in nature.

21

2.3.2 Private Vocational Training Institutions
2.3.2.1 Monfort Boys Town

Monfort Boys Town (MBT) usually take the under privileged students and provides them job
skills for the world of work. It is a boarding institution where students are expected to carry
out the board-school type responsibilities displaying values such as share and caring,
honesty, tolerance, multi-skills, responsibility, industry, domestic duties and good behaviour.
The main purpose of MBT is to enrol secondary school dropouts, economically poor or
disadvantaged youths help them to regain self-esteem, find a means of livelihood and
contribute to nation building. It is managed by the Catholic order of ‘Monfort Brothers’ of St
Gabriel, with financial support from the Government of Fiji under the Minister of Education.
MBT is very well organized and has very good facilities such as classrooms and workshops
and is well equipped and resourced. This is largely owing to the funding it receives as grant
and aid and the income derived from the enterprise work done by the students. MBT
produces graduates of high quality technical and vocational skills and they are either easily
absorbed in the workforce or begin their own self-owned and management enterprise.
Supported by the Government, this privately owned and managed vocational education and
training institute is a model to emulate. Annually, it enrols 134 students from disadvantaged
backgrounds and puts them through a two-three year training program in fitting and
machining, cabinetmaking and upholstery, building construction, carpentry and plumbing,
electrical and automobile maintenance and panel beating. It has 100 percent completion
rate and all the graduates are absorbed in the workforce. The Government finances about
40 percent of the costs of MBT management. MBT raises the rest through private
contributions and the sale of products such as furniture and services. The annual
expenditure per trainee is about FJD 71.00.
2.3.2.2 Private providers
According to MOE records, 51 registered vocation education private centres were operating
in Fiji by 2006. Twenty eight new centres were registered from 2000 to 2005. The influx of
private training vocational education providers for the last five years shows the need to offer
other skill training services that are not available in the formal training institutions such as
FIT and TPAF. Thus the private institutes or schools were established to provide skilled-
based courses that are in demand in the country. Computer Education courses heads the
list with a total of 39 centres managed by 20 different registered owners across the country
[MOE/R&D Stats Department].
Apparently, another ten centres are on the waiting list for approval with an approximately
twenty more centres operating with unregistered approval. In order to be registered and
recognized by MOE the schools have to follow through an application process, which takes
a timeline between 1 to 3 months. The approval to be registered can take a while if the
entire necessary documents are not available by the applicants. Whilst the fee is affordable
based on convenience, parents may access their superannuation fund to secure school
fees for their children. Schools with approval status have the special provision for accessing
this fund from the Fiji National Provident Fund for school fees
Table 2.7: Classification of Private Vocational Schools

School Type
Description
Approx Rol
Registration
Total

Date
Number
1. Computer
Schools-
Small-
10-15 5

2002
20
Steven Computer, South
Computer skills
3-2003
Pacific Education Centre,
5-2004
etc
2-2005
NIIT, APTECH, NZPTTC
Medium
16-25
5-2002
18
3-2003
5-2004

22

Total Computer Schools



41
2. Korean Language School
Language skills
5-12
2004
1
3.SecreterialStudues Institute
Tying & Business
10-15 2001 2
skills
4. Care Giver Service School
Care giving skills
10-16
2002
1
1. Pilot Schools-
Piloting skills
15-25
1996
2
Pacific Flying School &
Advanced Aviation Training
6. Hair Dressing, Health &
Beauty Therapy
18-26 2000 1
Beauty Therapy School- Style
skills
Gallery Institute
7. Message & Therapy School
Message &
13-19 2003 1
therapy skills
8. Hospitality School
Hospitality
22-26 2003 1
industry service
skill
9. University- CQU; USQ
General education &
180-350++ 2002-2003 2
degree /masters
programmes
Total Registered Centres



51
Source: MOE/R&D Stats Department, 2006

It is mandatory that all providers of technical and vocational education and training obtain
approval and registration from the Ministry of Education. The process involves the following
main steps:
(1) Application for Establishment: before its establishment the training institution submits
documentation about the proposed training, the resources to be provided and the fee
structure.

(2) A Private Vocational Processing Committee within the MOE reviews this application
and either recommended for establishment, corrective steps identified, or the
application is rejected with specified reasons. The processing of the application takes
one month.
(3) After approval for establishment the school management sets up its infrastructure,
advertises for qualified teachers, applies for a license to operate a business, obtains
approval for occupancy from the local authority, applies for an Occupational Health and
Safety Certificate from the Ministry of Labour and, if it involves an overseas investor,
applies to the Fiji Trade and Investment Bureau.
(4) Application for Recognition: When all facilities are in place the training institution then
applies to the MOE for “recognition.” This requires complete data on the teacher
qualifications, operating license, occupancy and OHS certificate and a site inspection
report by the Development Section, TVET.
(5) The Private Vocation Processing Committee approves, asks for improvements or
denies the application.
(6) Once recognition status is granted, training commences, and the MOE conducts
inspection visits to ensure the institution is being run according to plan. It also receives
annual reports and graduation reports from the institution. The MOE, in sum, ensures
that minimum safety and training standards are met (e.g. adequate space, equipment
and qualified instructors), but do not regulate the fees charged.


23

2.3.3 Non Formal TVET
2.3.3.1 Advanced Vocational Training (AVT)
AVT is the sub programme of the Integrated Human Resources Development for
Employment Promotion (IHRDPEP) of the Ministry of National planning. The overall project
goal for AVT is to provide co-ordinate planning, training, provision of adequate level of start
up capital, advisory, capital implementation, monitoring and evaluation services to the rural,
maritime and semi-urban unemployed population on Fiji. Advanced Vocational Training is
provided in the form of short courses - a few days to maximum two weeks - for school
leavers. MOE provides community-based facilitators for organizing and delivering need-
based and income-generating training programs especially in the rural areas.
The main objectives of the AVT project are:
To develop a rural, maritime and semi urban vocational and training system.
Develop a business and income generation register (BIGR) based on individual and
community profile instruments, consumer demand survey and market opportunities
surveys.
To co-ordinate vocational skills and business skills training based on the above-
mentioned instruments.
Develop a register of module trainers (RMT), develop and implement at least 10 new
income generation modules base on the above registers.
To allocate start-up capital to individuals and communities for commercially viable
human and natural resources utilisation projects.
Provide skills training based on market analysis and baseline data.
Conduct research and studies on appropriate structure, systems, strategies,
programmes and models.
Pilot and replicate training and business models nationally.
Draft modules for 10 new skills.
Draft National Vocational Training Policy and Action Plan.


According to the AVT Annual Report 2005, AVT has achieved the following after about
three years of operation (August 2000- June 2003):
1. 4,500 unemployed people were trained in income generation business skills.
2. 500 people have registered their businesses.
3. 50 people are employed as home supervisors.
4. 20 people are involved in home stay business.
5. The other trained people are involved in income generation activities.
[AVT Annual Report, pp 16, 2005]
Similarly, 2007 AVT/MOE Report shows that in 2006 1432 people were trained in
automotive engineering, cuisine and bakery, tailoring, handicraft, organic farming, animal
husbandry, plant propagation and floriculture. Moreover, 100 jobs were created, 13
canteens were set up and 21 piggeries were established.

According to MOE, the 65 technical and vocational education schools and the 128 technical
schools will be the strategic centres for community-based training and training-driven
production. Furthermore, these centres would enrol part of the 14,000 school leavers
annually. The Government’s vision as articulated in the document on “Opportunity for
Growth” defines education and training as: “Primary strategy to diversify the country’s
economy, achieve sustained economic growth and strengthen competitiveness. Through
education and training government hopes to reverse a labour market situation characterized
by low employment growth, high labour costs and an acute shortage of skilled and
professional workers due to mismatched and labour emigration ” [Feasibility Study on Fiji’s
Vocational Training Centres- CITEC Consultancy Ltd, 1996).

24

The Integrated Human Resources Development for Employment Promotion (IHRDEP)
document co-signed by the Fiji Government and UNDP in 1999 states “Furthermore
Advanced Vocational Training is expected to help create alternatives in terms of opening
avenues for self-employment, livelihood and income generation to cushion the impact of
unemployment and underemployment.” Both documents provide the legitimate platform for
visionary, revolutionary and robust school-based vocational education and community-
based advanced vocational training programmes. When implement the proposal has great
potential to reverse current high unemployment amongst school leavers, women and rural
dwellers, nil growth in industries and manufacturing sectors, mismatch in skills and labour
market requirements: to economic growth in industries and manufacturing sectors, full
employment and diversified sustainable economy. Table 2.8 shows the five year budget for
AVT. In the light of the technical and vocational education provided by AVT and the role it
places in addressing the unemployment problem especially in rural areas, the annual
budget seems rather small. Its initiative in providing multi-skills for self-employment and
generating wage employment for others is commendable. The Government must invest
more funds in such needy programs. There is scope for the induction of more industry-
based skills in this program.
Table 2.8: AVT Five Year Budget (2005-2009)

Capital Cost($)
Operational Cost
Non-Operational
Total Per Year
Year
Cost
2005 5,920,000
$1,787,600
$968,000
$8,675,600
2006 -
$1,787,600
$968,000
$2,755,600
2007 -
$1,787,600
$968,000
$2,755,600
2008 -
$1,787,600
$968,000
$2,755,600
2009 -
$1,787,600
$968,000
$2,755,600
Source AVT annual report, pp 13, 2005
2.3.3.2 Ministry of Youth, Sports and Productivity: Department of Youth
Training Scheme:

The National Youth Services provides skills training to rural and urban youths who are
unemployed especially for those who do not succeeded in the formal education system.
The training courses offered include Personal Development, Discipline Training, Basic
Agriculture Training, and Carpentry Skills Training. There are six training centres under the
National Youth Scheme programme and these include National Youth Centre in Sigatoka,
Yavitu Training centre in Kadavu, Naleba, Korolevu and Naqere Training Centres in
Vanualevu, Valelevu Training Centre in Suva.
Table 2.9: Youth Employment Option Programme Statistics

Service Provided
2002
2003
2004
2005
Total
New client
825 1173 756 555
3309
Registration
Revisits/Referrals 253
4396
84
214
4947
Work Attachment
157
48
66
28
299
Number Employed
258
158
104
73
593
Source: MOY Annual Report, 2006
Other courses offered through the National Youth training Centre (NTYC) include TPAF
Class 3 Carpenter General and Basic Agriculture Skills for men and multi skills training
courses for women include Backyard Agriculture, Screen Printing, Sewing, weaving,
handicraft and Cooking.
Table 2.10: Graduates of NYTC (2002-2005)

Year
No of Trainees
No. Graduated
Cost of running programme per

25

student
2002 29
29
$1,428.00
2003 55
53
$369.95
2004 60
50
$615.90
2005 75
52
$573.33
Source: MOY annual report 2006

National Youth Service Scheme (NYSS)
Perhaps the most newest and innovative project for the youth scheme is the establishment
of the NYSS. This government funded scheme was established at the beginning of 2008 to
look into indentifying skills and training needs before preparing young people into their
related skills that are channelled into employment opportunities for industries both locally
and overseas. This project has the support of various government institutions including the
ministry of education, ministry of labour and other industries. After registration, youths
undergo vigorous two weeks ‘skill for life’ training before they are regrouped for trade skill
training into a trade course of their choice for four weeks. They are then required to
undergo an industry work attachment for another three weeks before they are ready for
permanent work placement. The scheme also is also committed in assisting the graduates
to find work. The initial target was 2000 youths for 2008 but after the first round of
registration the figure stood at approximately 5,000 young people.
2.3.3.4 Tutu Vocational Training Centre:
Tutu Vocational Training Centre (TVTC) started in 1972 with an agriculture based course
but was diversified into other vocational related programs in the early eighties. The centre is
located 300 kilometers from Suva, on the Fiji’s garden island of Taveuni, east of Fiji’s
second largest island Vanualevu. The island is well known for its rich soil and vegetation.
Tutu vocational training centre was initially established to prepare young school leavers
from Cakaudrove province with new innovative training methods that would motivate them
to become self-employed farmers in their own village land as well as semi-skil ed vil age
tradesmen. The following are the objectives of the Tutu Vocational Training Centre:
To increase agricultural knowledge and skills required to intensify both subsistence
and commercial production.
To provide basic carpentry skills needed to maintain tools for furniture making and
house construction.
To provide basic mechanical skills needed to maintain small-engines equipment,
vehicle and simple machinery.
To provide other agriculture related courses like Poultry, Fish, Pig farming to
supplement their prior knowledge on agriculture.
To prepare the students with enterprising and business skills to operate, maintain and
sustain small businesses in their locality.
To provide young adults with proper moral family training in family care courses.
The criteria for selection to be given a place at Tutu include:
Must be aged 17 years and over;
Must be a resident in one of the villages in the Cakaudrove province;
Must produce written evidence from the provincial office of vil age land being available
for their future farm development and demonstrate their willingness to use such land
by planting 500 yaqona [kava] plants or equivalent before entering the course.

Final selection will be done after short listing the names and visit to the applicant’s
farm followed by a three weeks familiarisation programme at the centre

The TVCT three-year program covers all aspects of agriculture and agriculture-support-
courses. This program is based on school-work model in which students a six month on-
campus practical training and a six month home-based training annually for three years.
Each participant is given at least 0.8 hectare of land in Tutu during the course in which they
plant yaqona, short-term root crops and vegetables. However, the number of plants planted
is not as much as that planted in their home projects. Their weekly itinerary is closely

26

supervised by the instructors most of whom are volunteers and the members of the Society
of Mary of the Roman Catholic Church. During their home based periods, trainees are
expected to allocate their time as they do at the centre with weekly work schedules. This
itinerary is closely checked and monitored by the parents, vil age headmen, and agricultural
officers of the Ministry of Agriculture. The instructors from the centre monitor the home
project regularly providing technical as well as moral support. The centre staff even
provides further follow-up moral support and technical assistance to the graduates for
several years and gradually the supervisory roles is passed on to the extension officers of
Ministry of Agriculture located in the Cakaudrove province. Because of the success of this
non-formal vocational training at Tutu some features need mentioning:
The intake is restricted to an age group and to the provincial boundaries, and there is
close supervision and monitoring.
There is very good support of the parents, vil agers and officials of the Ministry of
Agriculture located in the province
The instructor and centre staff members are of good quality and work together in the
spirit of dedication. TVCT is a non-government organisation, however, there is a
continuity of service that is rarely seen in other rural education and training programs.
It is pleasing to note that most graduates of TVCT are usefully occupied. A survey
conducted in the villages showed that 90 percent of former trainees are now farming
successfully in their villages under a semi–commercial type enterprise. While many initially
sought paid employment in urban areas, Tutu preparation or training does not encourage
them to do so. Therefore, most graduates return to vil ages rather and begin self-owned and
self-managed agricultural enterprises. Tutu is financially supported by the Ministry of
Agriculture.
2.3.4 TVET Tertiary Institutions
2.3.4.1. Fiji College of Agriculture (FCA)

The Fiji College of Agriculture is the only college in Fiji that offers agriculture–based
courses at diploma level that adequately prepares the students for agriculture and
agriculture-related employment such as agriculture science teachers, research officers,
government administrators and commercial farmers. The diploma program is for three
years and successful students graduate with a Diploma in Tropical Agriculture. This
program has an articulation arrangement with USP that provides the diploma holders an
opportunity to complete their agriculture degree program at the University’s Alafua
campus in Western Samoa. Some of the courses of the degree can be completed
through the University’s distance and flexible mode of delivery. Owing to the limited
facilities available, FCA has limited student intake each year.
Table 2.8 shows information on FCA enrolment on gender as well as the graduate in the
period 2002-2005. In this period110 graduates found employment in the government
sector, 19 at the private sector and three have migrated overseas.
Table 2.11: FCA Enrolment 2002–2005

Year
2002
2003
2004
2005

M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
Year 1
17 17 22 26 26 22 25 22
Total
34
48
48
47
Year 2
13 14 17 16 20 22 24 20
Total
27
33
42
44
Year 3
24 19 11 14 17 16 17 18
Gender Total
51 50
50 56
63 60
66 60
Total
43
25
33
35
Grand Total
104
106
123
126
Enrolment
Total Number of
43
25
33
36
Graduates
Gender
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female

27


24 19 11 14 18 15 17 19
Source: FCA Management, 2006
2.3.4.2 Fiji Forestry School
Figure 2.3: Forestry Training Centre Organisation Chart



Principal


Head of Logging School

Senior Instructor [Lololo]
Senior Instructor [CIS]

Instructor/Ranger]
Instructor F/Ranger
S/Clerical Officer


Typist
Instructor
S/Clerical Officer


Labourer
A/Carpenter


Mechanic


Driver

Handyman


Labourer
Source: FCA Management, 2006
The main aim of the forestry training centre (FTC) is to develop and implement a human
resource development program with particular focus on the current and future human
resource training needs of the nation’s forestry sector. The centre also ensures that proper
development takes place in timber industry through appropriate forestry technician and
specific logging industry training programs. FTC also provides landowners awareness
Training program so that an effective forest management framework encompassing other
related forest activities is established and sustained. Furthermore, one of the roles of FTC is
to provide appropriate training to the forest industry and resource owners, monitor field
performance through skills tests, evaluate and conduct refresher courses for serving
forestry the stakeholders.
FTC offers the following competency-based certificates to participants who successfully
fulfilled the program requirements. The courses of the program are Basic, Intermediate and
Advanced Harvest Tree Manual, Cross Cutting, Bulldozer, Loader Operations 2 and 3 and
Skidder. From the reports submitted, it was noted that 751 participants received
competency-based certificates for the different forestry courses in 2001, 282 in 2003
and156 in 2005. Fifteen participants graduated in Forestry Technicians program in 2002.

2.3.5 Teacher Preparation Institutions

2.3.5.1 Fiji College of Advanced Education
The Fiji College of Advanced Education (FCAE) provides teacher education and training
programs to student-teachers who would teacher the junior secondary forms, that is, Forms
1-4. This is a two-year program and successful students are awarded the diploma in
education. The disciplines that FCAE provides include Education, Language & Literacy,
Commercial Studies, Home Economics, Mathematics & Computing Science, Science,
Social Science, Agriculture Science, Industrial Arts and PEMAC. Both Industrial Arts and
Agriculture Science are one-year courses and successful students obtain a Diploma in
Education.

2.3.5.2 The University of the South Pacific


28

The Technology and Community Education Division of the School of Education (SOE) of
the University of the South Pacific provides teacher education and training programs in
technology, food and textile and vocational education. These are for secondary school
teachers and community coordinators in Pacific island countries including Fiji. The program
comprises four sections, namely, Food & Textiles (FT), Technology Education (TE),
Community Education and Technology Education at College of Foundation Studies. The
students enrolled in the three year Bachelor of Education degree program with Technology
or Food and Textile major are required to take twenty one degree courses comprising 8 TE
or FT courses, 9 education courses and the rest are service or electives.
Currently the majority of the students doing these programs are on in-service. In other
words, they have been teaching for a number of years after completing a diploma in
education from a recognized secondary teacher education institution. Some of the trade
certificate or diploma courses that students have completed from FIT are also cross
credited. In future, it is likely that a formal pathway relationship will be established with FIT
enabling more cross credits from its certificate and diploma programs. The pre-service
students are also given the opportunity to take TE or FT majors in their BA/BSc GCEd
program of study. However, because of the theoretical nature of the courses with little
industry experience, the courses are inclined to a more academic type aiming at achieving
the technical degree in teaching. Currently the courses and programs are reviewed so that
‘school-workplace’ model with greater emphasis on technical and vocation education and
training can be introduced in appropriate areas. It is expected that a better pathway
arrangements will be established with the providers of technical and vocational education
and training in the USP region. The University of the South Pacific through its Faculty of
Science and Technology provides two different Bachelor of Technology programs - one in
Electrical & Electronics and the other in Mechanical & Manufacturing. It is expected that
some pathway arrangements will be done so that the diploma holders in the above-
mentioned programs would be able to complete their degree programs

29


C h a p t e r
FIT AND TPAF
3
This chapter briefly looks at the initiation and the development of FIT
and TPAF outlining their functions, courses and programs, resources and facilities.
3.1 Fiji Institute of Technology (FIT)
The Fiji Institute of Technology has developed considerably from its inception in 1964 with
its initial name, the Derrick Technical Institute. It coincided with the Government’s strategy
to cater for the Technical and Vocational human resource needs of the country. The name
Derrick Technical Institute was changed to FIT in 1980 and it continued exist under the
Ministry of Education administration.
However, in 1992 a Parliament decree allowed FIT to begin the process leading to
autonomous governance. It finally gained its semi-autonomous status in January 1996. A
Director was appointed as a CEO of FIT. Furthermore, a 12 member Council was
established to govern FIT. Of these 80 percent are representatives of private sectors. The
Chairperson of the Council is also from the private sector. Prior to this 90 percent of the
Council members were from the public sector, especially the Permanent Secretaries of
various Government Ministries. Figure 3.1 shows its organisational structure.
Most of its programs then were provided for by offshore providers like the City and Guilds of
London Institute in UK and articulated trade programmes from New South Wales, Australia.
With sponsorship backing from private companies such as FSC, Emperor Gold Mine, PWD,
Carpenters (Fiji) Ltd, Marlow’s Ltd, apprenticeship scheme became one of the driving forces
behind the existence of FIT.
FIT then used to offer a two year diploma program that comprised a three-week block on-
the-job training mainly in engineering courses. Business Studies, Typing and Shorthand
were the other programs offered by FIT.
To ensure that acceptable local and international standard is met in term of quality,
relevance and standard the Director chairs the academic Board of the Institute and
administers a general academic statute. The members of the Academic Board include the
Director as well as various school heads.
Approximately 67 percent of the cost of running and operating FIT comes from the Ministry
of Education while the remaining 33 percent being met by student fees (Source: FIT
Corporate Plan: 2003- 2006, pp 1).






30

Figure 3.1: The organisational structure of FIT
FIT ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE
FIT COUNCIL
DIRECTOR
DD
DD
PROFESSIONAL
ADMINISTRATION
ENGINEERING
BUSINESS
ACADEMIC
CORPORATE
SUPPORT
SERVICES
SERVICE
EEE
COMMERCE
D L S C
HUMAN
RESOURCES
A /RT
H&T
LEARNING
COMPUTER
CENTER
SERVICES
ME
ACD
ACADEMIC
PROPERTY
SERVICES
BCE
GENERAL
STUDENT
FINANCIAL
STUDIES
SERVICES
SERVICES
MS

A/RT = Automotive and road transport; ACD = arts, culture and design;
BCE = building and civil engineering; DLSC = distance learning studies centre
EEE = electronic & electrical engineering; H&T = hotel and tourism;

ME = mechanical engineering; and MS = maritime studies.
Source: FIT Management, 2006
FIT Today
FIT has now expanded greatly to meet the demands of the industry and the labour markets.
In its Cooperate Plan 2003–2007, there are seven strategic goals that govern the current
and future directions of FIT. These include:
1. Manage and control the number of Equivalent Full Time Students (EFTS) in skills-
demand areas as identified by the Government and the market place.
2. Diversify the training programs offered by FIT to address the need of the formal and
non-formal sector of employment and consequently create employment and
entrepreneurship opportunities.
3. Establish and strengthen strategic alliances with local schools and offshore colleges
and universities in the development of trade courses and the consolidation of the
advance diploma and undergraduate degree level programme with a view to pursue
post graduate level programs if and when the opportunity present itself.
4. Further promote and develop the field of fine arts, sculpture, performing arts, culture,
music, sports science and agriculture engineering.
5. Upgrade the school of maritime studies to meet the maritime sector.
6. Assist and enhance the technical capabilities of all the schools and department at FIT.
7. Improve the internal efficiency and effectiveness of FIT.
To address these goals, FIT has redesigned its organizational structure (Director, 2008). In
the new organizational structure, three new faculties have been established and these

31

include: (a) the Faculty of Commerce, Hospitality and Tourism; (b) the Faculty of
Humanities, Communication and creative Arts; and (c) the Faculty of Applied Science,
Engineering and Maritime Studies. Each Faculty has several Schools and Departments.
According to the Director of FIT (submission dated 18 March 2008), a few more faculties,
schools and departments will be created in future. He writes, “The FIT has carried out
sufficient reforms to enable it itself to become the referred to national institution, thereby
absorbing the other state owned tertiary institutions within its structure”. The Director goes
on to mention the following to support his restructuring plan:
1. “The teacher training institutions can neatly fall within the Department of Education of
the Faculty of Humanities, Communication and Creative Arts. This will prevent the
expenses and bureaucracy involved in setting up a College as the draft report
proposes”.
2. “The structure provides for the flexibility of adding more faculties to incorporate
additional educational needs. For example, Fiji College of Agriculture can come under
the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry which can be established within the
organisational structure of FIT, thereby again significantly reducing the expenses
involved in setting up a College of Agriculture and Forestry on its own under a new
University. The same can go for the nursing school and FSM, both of which can come
neatly under a new Faculty of Medicine and Pubic Health”.
The future plans of the FIT include establishment of a school for aviation maintenance,
hospitality centre in Nadi and a new campus in Suva. Six secondary schools have also
started franchising the hospitality and tourism programs and FIT expects to offer the
programs in a few other secondary schools.
Table 3.1: Levels of Qualifications

Awarded after 1 year of full time study, or
Certificate & Trade Certificates
equivalent and appropriate work experience,
with entry requiring completion of 11 years of
formal education.
Diploma
Requiring 4 semester of study, or equivalent
and appropriate work experience with entry

requiring completion of 12 years of formal
education.
Advanced diploma
Requiring two semesters after a pass at the
diploma level.
Degree- Bachelor of Applied Sciences
Requiring six semesters with passes in
(Environment)
Certificate in Laboratory Technology and a
Diploma in Environmental Science
Source: FIT Corporate Plan 2003-2006

Currently about 58 percent of the students are studying at the certificate, about 40 percent
at the diploma and about two percent at the degree levels. FIT’s enrolment has doubled
from about 3800 equivalent full-time students in 1999 to over 7600 in 2005. The enrolment
trend is shown in Table 3.1.
Graduates of FIT have high rate of employability over the years at technician and clerical
levels of occupations both in the formal and informal sectors. A large number of FIT
students are part-time students implying that study and work simultaneously. FIT needs to
collate the labour market outcome of its graduates so that more need-based courses can be
provided.


Table 3.2: Enrolment in FIT by Field, 2002-2007


32


School/Year
2002
2003
2004
2005
Automotive Engineering and Road Transport
573
445
481
489
Civil Engineering
521
349
541
684
Commerce 2800
1907
2361
3501
Art Culture and Design 330
525
551
413
Electrical and Electronics Engineering
593
496
746
757
General Studies
570
583
466
525
Hospitality and Tourism
235
239
297
385
Mechanical Engineering
587
372
523
624
Maritime Studies
212
196
178
244
Total
6421 5112 6144
7623
Source: FIT Management, 2007

Table 3.3: EFTS for 1996 – 2007
YEAR 1996
1997
1998
1999 '2000 '2001
'2002
'2003
'2004 2005
EFTS
2700 3300 3500 3746 4731 5032
6241 5500
6393
7623
Intake
400 600 200 246
985 301 1209 -741 893
1230
Graduates 643 917 973 1137 1137 1484
1437 1459
1783
1938
Source: FIT Management, 2007


Graph 3.1: EFTS, Intake and Graduating Students 1996-2005

8000
7000

6000
5000
EFTS
4000
Intake
3000
Graduates
2000
1000
0 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004
Source: Annual Report & FIT Management, 2007
Records on the numbers of graduates who found employment were not available.
According to FIT management, however, approximately 75-80 percent found employment
after graduation. It is important to keep such records so that the planning and program
development can be based on demand supply information.
By late 1990s FIT received two thirds of its financial support from Government and the rest
was met from student fees. Now the proportions are reversed and this is partly because the
Government has reduced its contribution. To cope with this financial shortcoming, FIT had
to increase student fees and introduce evening classes thus increasing the student
enrolment figures. Entrepreneurial activities such as provision of IT training and short
courses for industry were also introduced.

33


Table 3.4: Salaried &Student Cost:
Year
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Ops

4,413,200 4,487,800 6,840,900 7,440,900 7,440,900 7,440,900 7,440,900
7,440,900
8,000,000
8,000,000 8,000,000
Caps
1,300,000
1,410,000
1,410,000
1,350,000
0
0
0
0
600000
0 2,000,000

Salary
4,614,832 5,800,957 7,510,306 7,270,470 8,726,067 9,841,506
9,533,188
10,035,325
11,587,277
14,315,220
16,252,417
EFTS
2700
3,300 3,500 3,746 4,731 5032 6241
5500
6393
7922 8100
Cost/student
1635 1360 1955 1986 1573 1479 1192
1353
1251
1010
988
student/staff





20.5
24.0
21.4
23.9
29.7
30.2












Staff Population










Acad. Staff





246
260
257
268
267
268
Non Acad





139
160
154
159
172
170
Auxillary





124
93
94
107
98
95




509
513
505
534
537
533


Source: FIT Management, 2007

34

Degree Programs: FIT has just introduced a Bachelor of Education program in TVET in
articulation with the University of Newcastle, Australia. Most of the students of this program
are the members of FIT staff. Some technical teachers are also enrolled in this program.
This year FIT has introduced other degree programs. The University of the South Pacific is
also offering a similar program of study and it is expected that FIT will encourage its staff to
take USP program that is more relevant to the needs of the Pacific island nations. It is
reiterated that articulation arrangement between FIT and USP, could assist in avoiding
unnecessary duplication of programs and courses and thus making a better use of limited
resources available.
Franchise Program: Perhaps, two most innovative aspects of the FIT program is the
“franchising” it offers to secondary schools and the mobile training unit for Electrical and
Electronic Engineering delivered at doorsteps. The purpose of this program is to allow
secondary school students who have completed their secondary education to take some
vocational courses through this scheme and then their education at FIT or other similar
tertiary institutions. In fact, it is a “bridging program” with instruction provided off the FIT
campus. It allows students to pursue training for a trade certificate with set quality standards
in their locality without attending the FIT campus. Thirty-eight franchise centres exist at
present in three subject areas: auto mechanics; hospitality and tourism; and carpentry and
joinery. If a school is interested in establishing a FIT franchise centre, FIT sends out
inspectors who evaluate the premises, equipment and qualifications of the instructors.
They identify any shortcomings, which must be rectified before an agreement is signed.
The agreement between the FIT and the franchising school is bounded by the franchising
policy that both parties have to sign before the commencement of the program. In the
current arrangement the MoE is not a party to the agreement.
Students at the franchise centres become registered students of FIT. They pay $FJD150 as
fee per course and this is equivalent to a 12 week residential course at the FIT. This is a
one or two years course at the franchise centre. The current fee is almost double of what
the students paid in 2005. Despite this, the cost to a franchise student is comparatively less
than that of a FIT residential student who pays the tuition fee of FJD 350-400. The boarding
fee is not included in this. In return, FIT provides the curriculum or the syllabus and sets and
administers the final nationwide examination.
At present students can take as many as three stages of the five-stage preparation program
for a trade certificate from their centres or schools. FIT awards successful students a
“result slip” at the end of each stage. The students must take the stages beyond those
provided at the franchise centre at FIT. FIT monitors results by centre and if overall student
marks deteriorate it can remove recognition until the centre improves.
Besides the curriculum and the management of examinations, FIT does not provide any
further assistance especially in regard to teachers training and up-skilling for its program,
and providing or upgrading technical equipment and tools for workshops. As mentioned, the
only provisions made by FIT are in the form of the course materials and examination
papers. The franchise initiative is a useful concept but it is unsatisfactorily organized. The
franchise centres need support if the quality of this vocational initiative is to be maintained.
The Learning Centre: Through its learning centre, FIT is now offering technical and
vocational education and training courses and programs via distance and flexible mode of
delivery. The University of the South Pacific has very well established DFL system and
reaches its 12 regional countries. However, it provides academic courses and is now
beginning to areas of science and technology where practical work is necessary. Such
facilities are available at its campuses in its regional countries.

35

Distance and flexible mode of teaching and learning in technical subjects is a recent
innovation. FIT has started offering a diploma in business studies and courses in
engineering mathematics and applied sciences via this mode of delivery. It has also begun
to provide practical training in three fields: carpentry and joinery, plant maintenance and
plumbing. As experienced by USP, delivering practical-oriented course via DFL is difficult.
This initiative requires workshop for practice as well as site-based tutors. The franchise
centres can assist in this direction. Moreover, partnership relations with USP, FIT can
promote its DFL courses more effectively. FIT has developed DFL learning packages
including DVDs and CDs. These are supplemented with face-to-face tutors from three FIT
satellite centres.

The FIT DFL program started in 2004 with 30 students that increased to 100 in 2005 and
200 in 2006. It expects to have 5000 DFL students by 2009. The pass rate in DFL courses
is around 60 percent.
As mentioned earlier, DFL programs are not without problems. Some of these include
difficulties in communication, lack of design specialists to convert standard coursework to
distance formats and inadequate student support system. However, FIT is convinced that
that there exists a strong market for DFL programs in and beyond Fiji especially in the
Pacific island nations such as the Solomon Islands, Marshall Islands, Vanuatu, Tonga and
Tuvalu.
3.2 Training and Productivity Authority of Fiji
Background
The Training and Productive Authority of Fiji Act was initially established by the Fiji National
Training Act of 1973 and institute was first named as the National Training Centre. This Act
was amended in 2002 changing its title to the Training and Productivity Authority of Fiji Act.
Accordingly, the institute began to be called the Training and Productivity Authority of Fiji
(TPAF). The main focuses of this Act are:
Establishing system that meet the industry training needs.
Becoming the National Productivity Organisation for Fiji
Managing the levy grant scheme
Providing Training for the Industries
Managing Trade Test and Apprenticeship Scheme.
According to the Training and Productivity Act of 2002, TPAF, shall be “the apex
organization for technical and vocational training in the Fiji Islands” (para. 5, d, 2). Its
function is to provide training closely related to industrial and enterprise needs for those
outside the school system, and to promote improved productivity within enterprises. As per
provisions of the Act the key performance areas include the following:
1. Industry Driven Training
o Training programmes in TPAF are developed in consultation with relevant
stakeholders to meet specific needs of industries and an ability to forecast
future opportunities
2. Productivity
o TPAF believes that training functions as a catalyst for productivity
improvement. This is done through its training programs, the national quality
framework (NQF) and the productivity and human resources development
scheme. There are many factors which impact on productivity. However, the
focus here is on those factors that are provided in the Act.


36

3. Standards
o TPAF focuses on raising standards in all its responsibilities to assist Fiji to
progress forward effectively
4. Training Incentives
o TPAF continues to focus on providing incentives that encourage employers
to provide systematic training for their employees
Organisation
An overall Board consisting of 14 members, including four from government and five each
from employees and employers governs TPAF. The Chairman is the Permanent Secretary
for the Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment. A Director General
manages TPAF assisted by five general managers and 191 staff. The organization chart
appears below.
Figure 3.2: TPAF Organisational Chart


Mi
M ni
n ster
i
f
ster or
o rLab
La o
b r r
and
an
Indu
n str
du ial
str Rela
ial
ti
Rela on
ti s
on
TPAF
P Board
r
Nation
N
al
ation T
al rai
r n
ai i
n ng
n &
Nation
Na
a
tion l
a S
l tandar
an
d
dar s &
Produ
r
ctiv
odu
i
ctiv ty Cou
ty
n
Cou c
n il
Accredita
A
t
ccredita ion
t
C
ion o
C un
u cil
n
Nation
Na
a
tion l
a Qu
l
al
Qu ity
al
Award
r s Co
C un
u c
n i
c l
Director Ge
r
ne
n ral
Genera Manag
l Ma e
n rager
General
Manager, H
Genera o
H s
l M paitnalaity
ger
Gen Ma
e n
ra a
nl g
a er
M ,r anager
Mana
Geger,
ne T
rara
r inin
l M g
n
a &

nager
Manager
Techn
Tech i
n cal T
i
ra
r i
a ni
n ng
n
&
Ho Tou
&sp r
Tou
/T irsm
ourism
CCor
o por
Cor
rpo ate
porrat S
ate er
e
e Sv
r ices
vervices
Pr
P od
r uct
Pr ivi
i t
vi y
odu S
yc u
S p
u po
p rt
r
Hospitality & Tourism
Manager
tivity &
Support
Mech
M
an
ech ical E
an
n
ical E gin
n
eer
gin
i
eer n
i g
n
Pr
P o
r ductiv
u
ity
ctiv &
ity Qu
&
ality
Qu
Ho
H spit
spi ality
al &
ity Tou
&
r
Tou i
r sm
s
Nation
N
al
ation A
al ppr
A
en
ppr ticesh
en
ip
ticesh
Levy
Tra
r ini
n ng Depar
a t
r ment
Tra
r ini
n ng De
ng D part
r ment
Tra
r ini
n ng
i D
ng e
D part
r ment
Tra
r ini
n ng Dep
e art
r ment
Elec
E
t
lec ri
r cal an
cal
d E
an
l
d E ect
ec ron
r ic
on
Ma
M nu
a factu
nu
ri
r ng

n Industr
I
y
ndustr
Others – Aw
A ards,
National
Nation T
al rade
r
T
ade estin
est g
in
Grant
n s
En
E gi
n ne
n er
e i
er ng T
n
rai
r ni
n ng
n
Tra
r ini
n ng De
ng D part
r ment
Shor
h t Cou
or
r
t Cou ses
r
Department
n
Con
Co str
n u
str ction
u
I
ction n
I du
n str
du y
str
In
I for
n
m
for ation
m
T
ation echn
ech o
n l
o ogy
Finance &
ATTDT
Ma
M rketin
r
g
ketin & Re
&
sear
Re
ch
sear
Tra
r ini
n ng Depar
a t
r ment
Tra
r ini
n ng De
ng D part
r ment
Accou
A
n
ccou t
n s
Others
r -
s Ap
A titude,
Othe
Oth rs
r - Ph
P y
h si
y cal &
si

cal &
Ma
M rine
n & Ports
Nation
N
al
ation Qu
al
al
Qu ifica
al
t
ifica ions
n
Aw
A a
w rd
r s, Co
, C ns
n ult
ul ancie
a
s,
Hum
Hu an
n
Tra
r ini
n ng Depar
a t
r ment
Fram
Fr
ewor
am
k
ewor
Shor
h t Cou
or
r
t Cou ses
r
Resou
R
r
esou ce
r s, P
ce
u
s, P bl
u icati
bl
o
icati ns
n
Pr
P odu
r
cti
odu vi
v ty P
ty r
P om
r
oti
om on
MTS
Depart
r ment
n
Source: TPAF Management, 2007


37

The Fiji National Training (Amendment Act) also makes provision for the appointment of
three councils with distinct roles. Each Council consists of eight members - two each from
the Government, employers, employees and the training providers. In reality the Councils
are tripartite in nature, that is, two members each from employers, employee and the
Government are represented. These include the National Training and Productivity Council
(NTPC), the National Standards and Accreditation Council (NSAC) and the National Quality
Awards Council (NQAC). The functions of NTPC functions are to
The functions of NTPC functions are to
provide and/or arrange appropriate vocational education and training in
connection with employment;
advise and disseminate information on training;
provide training to persons outside the scope of the levy order; and
provide consultancy services; issue certificates of competency registered
with National Qualification Frameworks or other qualifications approved by
the NSAC.
The responsibilities of NSAC are to

develop the NQF that complies with international standards;

develop, apply and carry out regular review of vocational competency standards
relating to qualifications specified in the NQF;

arrange for the accreditation and registration of training providers and trainers;

administer and conduct national examinations and tests for trades and other vocational
skills pertaining to qualifications specified in the NQF;

manage national apprenticeship and traineeship programs; and

Coordinate accessible and flexible qualification systems, the standards of which are
recognized internationally.
The NQAC role is to

develop framework for the purpose of achieving sustainable organisation excellence;

develop and apply systems of national awards for the purpose of recognizing
sustainable organizational excellence;

develop and promote national productivity awareness campaign on annual basis;

establish productivity measurement, bench marking and research services; and

organize national conventions, seminars, workshops for the purpose of promoting
organisational quality and productivity.
Nine training departments are distributed among three managers: five under the Manager,
Technical Training; three under another manager and one under the third. The General
Manager Corporate Services handles levies and grants, human resources, properties and
MIS. The General Manager Productivity and Standards handles apprenticeship training,
national trade testing, marketing, research and information, national qualifications
framework, productivity promotion and Fiji Business Excellence Awards.
Linkages with employers
TPAF is linked with the employers through advisory committees that are guided by sector
focused groups comprising employer representatives and staff members who visit the
respective industries regularly. Training programs are not introduced without the prior
approval of these focus groups. Virtually all scheduled training programs are vetted by the
ITACs. Moreover, TPAF holds sector focus groups meetings to discuss training programs

38

with relevant stakeholders. These focus groups are held in various centres, and each focus
group focuses on a particular sector such as automotive training and computer training.
In fact, TPAF takes its linkages with employers seriously.

Table 3.5: TPAF Enrolment & Training
Training Department

2002
Non Award
# Of
Award
# Of
Courses
Participants
Courses
Participants
Total
945
15,258 15 1595

Training Department

2003
Non Award
# Of
Award
# Of
Courses
Participants
Courses
Participants
Total
970
14,153 23 1992

Training Department

2004
Non Award
# Of
Award
# Of
Courses
Participants
Courses
Participants
Total
1150
16,997


Training Department

2005
Non Award
# Of
Award
# Of
Courses
Participants
Courses
Participants
Total
1507
20,297 36 1977

Training Department
2006
Non Award
# Of
Award
# Of
Courses
Participants
Courses
Participants
Total
1617
25664

2134

Training Department
2007
Non Award
# Of
Award
# Of
Courses
Participants
Courses
Participants
Total
1410
25342

1077
Source: TPAF Management, 2007

Training Department
PQTD - Productivity & Quality Training
EEETD - Electrical Electronics Engineering Industry Training
MPITD - Marine Ports Industry Training
HTITD - Hospitality & Tourism Industry Training
CITD - Construction Industry Training
MEITD - Mechanical Engineering Industry Training
MITD - Manufacturing Industry Training
ITTD – Information Technology Training Department
ATTDTD - Aviation, Tourism, Travel and Diving Training Department


Table 3.6: TPAF Graduation Summary



Graduation Numbers



Field
2001
2002
2003
2004 2005 2006
TOTAL
1010
666
57
713
634
551

Source: TPAF Management, 2007

Most graduates of TPAF are in-service students or apprentices. TPAF also has some pre-
service students and the graduates from this program are employable both in the formal
and informal employment sectors. They normally enter the workforce at assistant technician
level.

39

TPAF Budget & Finance
The Training and Productivity Authority of Fiji is being financed through:
(a) Levy
(b)
Revenue generated through its activities: (shown below)
Table 3.7: Revenue generated through its activities
Revenue Source 2002
2003
2004
2005
Levy
8,198,674.30 10,369,087.91 10,026,405.60 10,078,838.41
Course Fees
4,970,888.64 5,002,080.12 7,847,872.41 6,996,861.61
EXP. Budget
12,871,000.00 13,698,000.00 15,370,000.00 16,976,000.00
Rev. Budget
13,963,000.00 14,717,000.00 16,159,000.00 17,082,000.00
% Levy/Rev.
61.19% 60.08% 61.53% 58.77%
Budget
Source: TPAF Management, 2007
Revenue
The bulk of TPAF’s revenue comes from a one percent levy paid by the employers on their
gross payroll. In addition, TPAF also raises revenue from training fees, consultancy
services and trade testing. [Refer to Table 3.6 & Graph for Finance.]
Levy-Grant System
TPAF levies a one percent fee on the gross salaries of all employees in registered firms in
Fiji, regardless of size of the enterprise. Both the private and public sector employer
involvement was guaranteed in the form of a Levy Order issued in September 1973 and
effective in 1974. The public service is included, but certain categories of workers are
excluded, e.g. teachers, nurses, military.
The purpose of the levy is to stimulate training within the enterprises. TPAF collects the
levy itself by requiring employers to submit documentation and payment semi-annually, and
by contacting delinquent employers through four Levy Enforcement Officers. At present
about 5200 employers pay the levy and an estimated 2305 do not. The proceeds
amounted to FJD 10,369,087.60 in 2003 and FJD 10,078,838.41 in 2005. In theory,
employers can recoup up to 90 percent of the amount they pay into the levy each year.
Apparently, most industries do not reclaim the minimum amount or at least conduct in-
house training for its staff by TPAF.
Note that the top 50 organisations account for 52 % of all levies; a lot of small organisations
will pay very small amounts of levy. TPAF does collect statistics on the number of people
trained and they have the record of this information
Methods used for grants:
Two methods are generally used for the grant system:
METHOD A
For larger employers TPAF approves the training plan and this is based on a detailed set of
criteria that show percentages of reimbursement for various categories. Under this method
the employer can conduct its own training programs and can be reimbursed for part of the
training costs including training abroad.


40

METHOD B
Method B is the ad-hoc reimbursement for training programs approved in advance, either
within the enterprise or off-site. Normally TPAF keeps a list of approved programs but does
not publish them. Blanket approvals are not normally given to training providers.
Reimbursement is made according to a schedule of reimbursement based on the wages of
the trainees and the length of training programs.
Some employers have expressed concern about the limited chances of getting
reimbursement. TPAF Council need to take this matter seriously and explore ways of
helping the employers financially in their training endeavours. In 2005, 5200 enterprises
contributed the levy, but only 240 received any kind of reimbursement for training programs
although1800-2000 individual claims were made. Under Method A, 50 employers got about
60-68 percent of the levies back. Surprisingly, TPAF does not collect statistics on the
number of people trained annually through by the two methods of the grant system.

In addition, on Training Providers TPAF have not advertised the grant claimable courses as
these are provided by public Training Providers who apply for “grant claimable” status.
TPAF inform them in the approval letter not to use TPAF in their advertisement but only the
term grant claimable status. The list of Grant Claimable Providers and programs is now
available on the TPAF website.
Training Activities
TPAF provides training programs to unemployed school leavers as well as employees who
attend late afternoon and evening classes. Therefore, it can be concluded that it provides
both pre-service and in-service training programs. These training programs training consist
of an average of 70 percent practical and 30 percent theory.
In total TPAF has nine Industry Training Departments. The Technical Training Division has
four departments: electrical engineering; mechanical engineering; construction industry; and
marine and port training.
In addition to these, TPAF has hospitality and tourism training, productivity and quality
training, and textile, clothing and footwear industrial training. In brief, TPAF serves 19,000
trainees annually in six centres, one third of who attend evening sessions.
In addition, TPAF has hospitality and tourism training, productivity and quality training and
manufacturing industry. Reportedly TPAF serves 19,000 trainees annually in six centres,
one third of who are evening trainees.
Apprenticeship Training
Trade apprenticeship is a systematic program of on-the-job practical and related theoretical
training designed to produce a fully skilled tradesman or technician. At present 66
employers participate, employing 580 apprentices in four to five year training programs in
23 trades. About 120 apprentices complete apprenticeships annually. Cumulatively, over
531 apprentices have completed their training since the program was introduced in 2001.
The employer enters into a contract with the apprentice and TPAF with a six-month
probationary period to allow the employer and apprentice to decide whether to continue.
The employer pays minimum wages set by the Wages Council and finances off-the-job
training at FIT. Coursework is either eight weeks of block release of 18 weeks for semester,
depending on the trades. TPAF also conducts in-house training programs which are tailor-
made to suit a particular organization’s training needs.
The number of apprentices is increasing and the target for 2006 is 650. However, many
employers do not re-enlist in the apprenticeship scheme. They prefer FIT graduates who
already have obtained trade certifications. They find this approach more cost effective.

41

TPAF inspectors visit the job sites three times a year to assess the performance of
apprentices. They also examine the duties assigned to them and the ratio of skills workers
to apprentices and the record books. Successful apprentices receive a certificate of
apprenticeship. Employers receive some reimbursement for supervising trainees.

Under the Apprenticeship scheme TPAF have been pursuing a program to convert the
current apprenticeship training system from a time based system to one that is competency
based. The project is well on its way and standards have been produced for eight trades.
Training of assessors has already taken place. Another round of assessor training has
taken place in February 2008. The standards so far converted to CBT will be registered on
the upcoming National Qualifications Framework.”
Trade Testing
The National Trade Testing Scheme provides an avenue for workers without formal
qualifications to acquire recognition of their skills and knowledge acquired on the job in 23
trades.
TPAF Trade Testing Certification
The students can apply for and be assessed for a Level Three Trade test in their skill area.
TPAF Trade Tests are practically orientated skills tests.

TPAF qualifications are in three levels.
Level Three:

Junior Trades Person.
Level Two:

Qualified Trades person.
Level One:

A supervisor within the skill areas.

• Level Three Certification requires a candidate to have a two - year practical
experience or a Vocational Certificate with proof of Industrial attachments within the
area of expertise.
• Level Two certification requires a level three certificate and a four-year industrial
experience. Or FIT stage 5 pass and two years industrial experience.
• Level One certification requires a level two certificate and a six-year industrial
experience.
Level One Certification requires a level two certificate and a six-year industrial experience.
These trade tests are recognised as an appropriate training required in the industries.
These qualifications have international recognition as well. The tests are 70 percent
practical and 30 percent theoretical in nature. The theory tests at level three can also be
taken orally by the TPAF assessors providing non-academic candidates opportunities to
take them as well.

Table 3.8;
Total Number of Candidates Tested
Year

1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
#
of
Candidates 1,416 1,770 1,953 1,945 1,710 1,692 1,786
Source: TPAF Management, 2007

Table 3.9:
Class 1 Candidates Test Results
Year

1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
# of Candidates
148
205
198
122
135
81
84
Source: TPAF Management, 2007


42

The demand for trade testing has been substantial, however fluctuating, for the last five
years. The fluctuation in the demand for these tests can be attributed to the increase in test
fees in 1998. Currently, the fees for the three tests are $60, $90 and $115, respectively.
The fees only cover about half the costs of trade testing. The balance is financed through
training levy provided by the industries. The demand for Class 1 Level Test declined in
2004-05 and the reason for this is attributed to the emigration of skilled workforce owing to
the political disturbances beginning in1987.
Table 3.10: TPAF Number Tested by the Five Most Popular Occupations at each Class
Level
Occupation
2003
2004
2005
Class III
Motor Mechanic
306
259
311

Carpenter General
163
173
61

Plumber General
50
47
60

Cabinet Maker
39

58

Welding 37

71
Pass Rate
66%
75%
67%





Class II
Motor Mechanic
93
85
131

Plumber General
30
28
25

Panel Beating
30



Carpenter General
16

27

Fitter Machinist
16
24

Pass Rate
58%
66%
50%





Class I
Motor Mechanic
21
11
23

Panel Beating
10
3


Lithographic Offset Machinist
6



Carpenter General
5

4

Plumber General
4


Pass Rate

41% 65% 40%
Source: TPAF Management, 2007

TPAF has also given license to 29 secondary-school based TVET centres to prepare their
students for Class 3 trade test. The permission is only given to the TVET centres that have
met the required entry qualification and minimum facilities and equipment standard.
TPAF has skills standards for each trade and these are reviewed every five years. To
maintain competency the skills are benchmarked against qualifications in New Zealand and
Australia.
Many industries recognise TPAF qualifications as an independent measure of practical
skills for their industry. The trade tests are assessed by TPAF Trade Test Examiner who is
independent of the testing centre and of the teaching institutions, which conducted the
training at an approved site.
National Qualifications Framework
One of the most important tasks assigned to TPAF is the establishment of a national
qualifications framework for technical and vocational skills. TPAF held a seminar on this
subject in 2004, at which the NZ/NQA and the Australian Qualifications Authority made
presentations to tailor-made the local NQF. The outcome of the meeting was a set of
decisions to go forward with development of a national qualifications framework in Fiji after
approval from all stakeholders, including the Ministry of Education.
Based on the New Zealand system a draft NQF was prepared. It would be initially
implemented in five trade areas including construction and hospitality/tourism. A consulting
firm from New Zealand has been contracted to help in this process.


43

A study on skills gap in Fiji by Asian Development Bank (ADB Report, 2006) reveals that
TPAF is an excellent organisation for TVET in so far as the development of NQF and its
implementation is concerned. It went to suggest that it was a model for the whole Pacific
island nations. A SWOT analysis for TPAF indicated the following:
Strengths (S)
The Act provides the legal basis for its activities.
The levy scheme provides an assured source of funding.
TPAF has established close industry-based and backed-training relationship with
industries and their personnel.
It provides flexibility in different modes of training and is able to make quick turnaround
in offering programs.
The location of TPAF main centres promotes access.
TPAF is becoming a strong, recognised brand in technical and middle management
training.
The weaknesses (W) include
Inability to provide training for all industrial sectors;
Lack of targeted marketing of courses and of TPAF generally;
Lack of physical resources such as workshops;
Need to strengthen the customer service culture;
Dependence on levy;
Weak research and development – 99 percent of the training is reactive rather than
based on labour market forecasting; and
Greater staff turnover in PQTD, ITTD and PPD.
Some of the opportunities (O) identified include
The need for skilled workers in critical industries such as tourism, construction and ICT;
The pressing need to develop the managerial cadre in Fiji;
Expand apprenticeship training into tourism and other sectors; and
Possibilities to generate revenue through extension services.
Threats (T)
Increase in competition in training industry offering similar programs, e.g. FIT short
courses;
Slowing of economic growth (sugar industry, garments);
Perception among some in industry that they do not get value for money paid into levy
– risk of withdrawal of levy; and
High migration of skilled workers and professionals

44


C h a p t e r
Presentation and Discussion
4
of the Findings


Introduction
This chapter presents and discusses the findings that emerged from the data collected in
this review. It is reiterated that the data collected was directed by the Terms of Reference
provided the Interim Minister of Education, Science and Technology listed below. The other
sections presented in the chapter include discussion on Acts, major responsibilities and the
areas of duplications. It concludes with discussion of important implications for policy and
practice.
Terms of reference
1.
To compare the FIT Act, TPAF Act and the Education Act with the view to identifying
areas of duplications in terms of responsibilities. It would be relevant to the
understanding of the Taskforce for FIT and TPAF to provide an interpretation of their
roles and core responsibilities according to their Acts and what links they have with the
other institutions such as USP and MoE.

2. Make recommendations to the review of the three Acts to clearly demarcate
responsibilities of the three institutions in terms of training activities. FIT and TPAF may
need to identify areas they are currently working with that lie outside of their Act.

3.
Consider the robustness of the Acts in terms of meeting the country's demands for skill
training and requirements.

4.
Define and assess the target audience for each institution.
5.
Ensure that the two institutions have greater accountability to the responsible Minister for
meeting their core functions within the resources provided by government.

6.
Review the current structure of accountability with the two institutions coming under two
different Ministers and Ministries.

7.
Review the training programmes of FIT and TPAF and identify areas of duplications in
training.

8.
Make recommendations on how to streamline the training activities in the two institutions
to better show their core functions in terms of meeting the skilled manpower of the
industries and determine future of excess programmes.

9.
Look at major pathways, in connection with the National Qualifications Framework, for
learning in the area of TVET between the schools, FIT, TPAF and the USP.

1.0 Assess the fees structure of FIT and TPAF and make recommendations on how learning
can be more affordable to the public.
11. Make any other recommendations to the Minister for Education for improving
effectiveness and efficiency of FIT and TPAF and issues for future research and
considerations.



45

The review of the functions of FIT and TPAF and the other providers of TVET has been a
major concern of policy makers and policy-users as well as other stakeholders for a number
of years. Perceiving the importance of such a review, the Board of TPAF wrote to then
Minister for Labour, the Hon. Kenneth Zinck in 2004 requesting him to begin discussion on
the issue with the Minister for Education.
On the same lines TPAF wrote a letter to FIT attaching a discussion paper. The paper was
discussed in the FIT Council meeting. Subsequently the matter was discussed at both the
FIT Council and the TPAF Board meetings. In light of the significance of the issue, the
TPAF Board suggested that the matter be discussed at the ministerial level. After 2005,
however, the Ministerial responsibility of TPAF changed from the Ministry of Labour,
Industrial Relations and Productivity to the Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and
Employment. .
There was not any review of the functions of these two institutions and those of the other
providers of TVET until the appointment of the Interim Minister of Education, Mr. Netani
Sukanivalu in December 2006. Mandated by the Cabinet of the Fiji Government, he
appointed a task force on 10 May 2007 to conduct a review of the core functions and the
roles of FIT and TPAF. It was to be chaired by Associate Professor Akhila Nand Sharma,
the then Head of the USP’s School of Education. Mr. Eci Naisele, an Acting Senior
Education Officer was seconded by the Ministry of Education as the secretary of the review
exercise.
Presentation of Findings
The findings of the review exercise are presented in three tables. Table 4.1 compares the
FIT, TPAF and Education Acts. The second table shows the major responsibilities in each
Act and the third identifies the areas of duplication of courses and programs in these two
institutions. In the third table, some justifications for duplication are provided. In particular,
TPAF explains why it provides pre-service courses and programs that according to the Acts
ought to be provided by FIT. TPAF argues that it has to offer such courses and programs
because FIT is not able to cope with the increasing demands of the industries and the other
employing agencies alone.
The findings presented in Tables 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 are discussed in the second section of
this chapter. However, it is important to mention here that FIT and TPAF operate under the
specific Government Acts drawn for them. Each institute has a Board that sees that it is
managed accordingly. In order to keep as up-to-date as possible, the draft FIT Bill of 2006
is used as its primary legislation. Subsequently, another paper entitled ‘Vocational
Education and Training – The Way Forward’ was approved by the Interim Government
Cabinet in August 2007 enabling the establishment of twenty quality TVET centres in
various parts of Fiji.
The TPAF Act was initially set up as the Fiji National Training Act of 1973. It was amended
by the Fiji National Training Amendment Act of 2002 that renamed it as the Training and
Productivity Authority of Fiji Act. The major foci of this Act are to manage trade tests and
apprenticeship scheme; provide training for industries; managing the levy grant scheme; be
the National Productivity Organisation for Fiji; and establish systems that meet industry
training needs.
As shown earlier (see page 61), the functions of TPAF was examined employing the SWOT
analysis instrument. It was found that the strengths of, and the opportunities presented by,
the functions of TPAF outweigh the limitations and threats that exist.



46

1.0
Comparison of Acts
Table 4.1: Comparison of FIT, TPAF and Education Acts
Important
FIT
TPAF
EDUCATION
component of
the Act
1. Controlling 5 1 (e): Shall ensure that
Section 9 Sub Section 2. The Authority shall
10 (1): The basic curricula in all registered and recognized
Authority
the Institute is managed in
be the national organization for technical and
schools shall be as laid down from time to time by the
accordance with the
vocational training in the Fiji Islands
Permanent Secretary (PS).
statement of objectives and
16 1 (a): Any person desirous of establishing a school shall
such other policies for
first apply in the prescribed manner and when approving
technical and vocational
such application the PS may impose such conditions as he
education and training as
thinks fit.
the Board with the approval
25 (d): Imposing conditions subject to which schools may
of the Minister may
be registered or recognized
determine.
25 (h): Imposing conditions subject to which certificates

and licenses to teach may be issued, specifying the
qualification required for certificated and licensed teachers
and prohibiting a teacher holding any such certificate or
license from teaching in any particular class, standard or
form in any school or classification or type of school.
2. National
5 1 (j) Shall, either alone or Section 9 – 1 (l): Develop the national
10 (1): The basic curricula in all registered and recognized
Qualifications jointly with another
qualifications framework and make provisions
schools shall be as laid down from time to time by the PS.
and Curricula organization confer upon a
for the registration of such training courses or
16 1 (a): Any person desirous of establishing a school shall

person who has
training providers of facilities or qualifications
first apply in the prescribed manner and when approving
successfully completed a
of such category as it shall direct, and make
such application the PS may impose such conditions as he
program or other
provision for the approval of such
thinks fit.
qualifications as may be
qualifications, courses, providers and facilities. 25 (d): Imposing conditions subject to which schools may
prescribed.

be registered or recognized


25 (h): Imposing conditions subject to which certificates
and licenses to teach may be issued, specifying the
qualification required for certificated and licensed teachers.
3.
5 1 (j) Shall, either alone or 9 1 (m) to issue or cause to be issued to an 25 (e): Prescribe conditions of certificates of registration or
Confer
jointly with another
apprentice on the satisfactory completion of recognition.
certificates
organization confer upon a his contract of apprenticeship, or to any

person who has
person other than an apprentice on the

47

successfully completed a satisfactory completion of any course of
program or other
training, a certificate in such form and manner
qualification as may be as it shall decide;
prescribed. Minister may
make regulations, etc.
20 (1): The Minister may,
on the recommendation of
the Board, make
regulations in respect of:
(a) the administration of
the Institute; and (b) the
conferring of diplomas,
certificates and other
academic awards.

3 Training
5 (m) shall provide facilities 9 (a) to provide, arrange for or regulate the Again in Section 5 (f) may initiate and engage in

and develop programs in appropriate training of persons or classes of entrepreneurial activities with a view to the Institute
respect of higher education persons, whether by way of apprenticeship or becoming more and more self-funding.
generally, including
otherwise, to assist such persons or classes of
programs intended to lead persons in connection with employment;
to qualification in specified 9 (g) on request, with the approval of the
professions and
Minister, to provide training in respect
occupations;
of persons outside the scope of a levy order
5 (f) may initiate and on terms to be fixed by the Authority.
engage in entrepreneurial
activities with a view to the
Institute becoming more
and more self-funding;




48

Table 4.2: Major Responsibilities in FIT and TPAF Acts
FIT Responsibilities
TPAF Responsibilities


(a) to facilitate the functioning of the To provide, arrange for or regulate the appropriate training, of persons or classes of persons,
Institute as an autonomous body; (b) to whether by way of apprenticeship or otherwise, to assist such persons or classes of persons in
establish an administrative framework connection with employment;
which is conducive to effective and
efficient governance and, ultimately, TPAF provides training through NTPC departments. TPAF regulates apprenticeship training
financial independence of the Institute; through NSAC. TPAF assists persons under apprenticeship to transfer contracts when being
and (c) to position the Institute terminated due to close of business, Employer’s inability to train etc.
strategically, to anticipate, plan for and (a)
To co-operate in, approve, or advise on any such arrangement made by any other
meet the demands for education and
person, including the Crown;
training in a global economy driven by
the changes in technology.
In terms of Method A employers, TPAF co-operates and approves training plans,
programs etc. and also makes arrangements for providing them with their training

needs. For Method B employers, TPAF advises on their enquiries.
FIT is the major Academic training (b)
After consultation with such persons as it may consider desirable, to arrange for
institution and is providing the
employment of such persons or classes of persons who are under training or who have
qualifications. Some of the programs
completed appropriate training
articulate into diplomas and degrees with
arrangement with overseas providers.
Apprenticeship arrangements are being undertaken. Attachments for on job training of
Board shall oversee this issue. The
students by various training departments being done through requests
Structure of the FIT will be ultimately
approved by the Board.
(c)
To enter into any contract necessary to carry out its functions under this Act; Contracts
with PINZ, TAFE, USC, SAI Global etc. to carry out training functions & consultancy
The FIT Board has the functions defined.
functions are in place.
Almost all courses offered by FIT
articulate into their own qualifications in

49

the form of either Trade certificates,
Diplomas and higher diplomas. Some
courses are recognized by NZ and (d)
To acquire, enjoy or otherwise dispose of or deal with any real and personal property for
Australian universities and students can
any purpose necessary to carry out its functions under this Act; Properties being
attend them for the final one or two
purchased as well as equipment. Where purchase not possible and demands are there
years for completion
we provide services through hired facilities.
(e)
To advise on, and to disseminate information about training; information on training and

training needs provided to interested stakeholders after surveys, industry visits, focus

group meetings etc.
(f)
On request, with the approval of the Minister, to provide training in respect of persons
Section 5. (1) The Board shall have the
outside the scope of a levy order on terms to be fixed by the Authority; Training offered
general management and control of the
to Department of Prisons, Military and Education and the general public.
Institute and for that purpose:
(g)
To provide a consultancy service to employers and other persons; Consultancy services
(a) shall exercise a general supervision
provided in 5S, QCs, ISO-QMS, GP, Benchmarking and FBEA. Productivity Measurement
over the affairs of the Institute;
will be undertaken shortly.
(h)
To investigate and make recommendations, to such persons as it shall consider
(b) Shall have the custody, control and
appropriate, relating to any matters connected with this Act;
disposition of all property, funds, fees
and investments of the Institute;
(i)
To make grants or loans to persons providing such courses or other training facilities the
Authority may approve; Advice given but no loans or grants given for the development of
(c) Shall strive to ensure that the
training facilities.
Institute attains the highest standards of (j)
To assist and contribute towards the cost of training, and the promotion of training, of
excellence in education, training and
any person or class of persons; Assistance given by provision of grants, tool and travel
research;
allowances of apprentices and which is not based on the amount of levy paid by
employers.
(d) Shall, from time to time, in respect of
the Institute, prepare, for the approval of (k)
Develop the national qualifications framework and make provision for the registration of
the Minister, a statement of objectives,
such training courses or training providers or facilities or qualifications of such category it
including a corporate plan, and proposed
shall direct, and make provision for the approval of such qualifications, courses, providers
funding for such objectives and plan;
and facilities; Project Officers employed to oversee and facilitate the development of the
NQF initially for vocational trades which are under apprenticeship. Government wil need

50

(e) Shall ensure that the Institute is
to decide as to where and which entity to place the NQF under.
managed in accordance with the
statement of objectives and such other
policies for technical and vocational (l)
To issue or cause to be issued to an apprentice on the satisfactory completion of his
education and training as the Board, with
contract of apprenticeship, or to any person other than an apprentice on the satisfactory
the approval of the Minister, may
completion of any course of training, a certificate in such form and manner as it shall
determine; (f) may initiate and engage in
decide; Certificates issued for Trade Tests, apprenticeship, short and long training
entrepreneurial activities with a view to
courses like the certificate of completion, certificate of attainment, and also joint
the Institute becoming more and more
certificates issued for workshops and seminars especially when programs run by APO or
self-funding; (g) may engage in such
other partners.
joint venture activities as will enable the
Institute to improve its provision of (m) To make loans to servants of the Authority for such purposes (other than housing) as it
facilities, including the provision of halls
may approve; (Inserted by Act 25 of 1976, s. 2.)
of residence, to students; (h) Shall, for
the purposes of responsible, effective and
TPAF staff advance facility is in place for computer or white goods or car loans and salary
efficient use of resources, ensure that
advance for pressing needs through approval of the DG
systems are established for the co-
ordination of activities of the Institute (n)
Generally do all such acts and things as are necessary or incidental to the discharge of
and for accountability; (i) shall, subject to
its functions under this Act.
the by-laws, conduct examinations;(j)
Shall, either alone or jointly with another Board approves policies and corporate and business plans which are implemented. Most items in
institution, confer upon a person who has CP are addressed by the various departments which becomes their performance goals and KPIs
successfully completed a program are drawn from them.
referred to in paragraph (m), such
academic or other qualification as may be 1. The Authority shall be the national organisation for technical and vocational training in the Fiji
prescribed; (k) Shall, subject to the by- Islands.
laws, if any, make such appointments of
instructional staff and other employees
Because of the overlap of responsibilities between TVET Department of the Education and
on such terms and conditions as it may
TPAF, this is yet to be realized.
determine;
2. The Authority shall be the National Productivity Organisation for the Fiji Islands and shall act
(l) may award and administer bursaries

51

and scholarships whether tenable at the
and perform functions to promote the concept of productivity as a viable economic strategy.
Institute or elsewhere on such terms and
conditions as it may determine;
TPAF conducts seminars, workshops and training courses in productivity related fields as well
as promotes productivity throughout the nation. 5S, QC, Benchmarking, Productivity
(m) Shall provide facilities and develop
Measurement, GP Model companies, FBEA, ISO 9000 consultancy etc. are in place.
programs in respect of higher education
general y, including programs intended to
lead to qualifications in specified
professions and occupations;
9B The functions of the National Training and Productivity Council are:
(n) May accept gifts and donations
(a)
To provide and arrange appropriate vocational education and training in connection
whether of property or otherwise and
with employment;
whether subject to any special trust or
not for the purposes of the Institute;
The PQTD, MEITD, EEETD, CITD, HTITD, MMITD provide a range of courses to cover
every field of training for industries.
(o) shall provide pecuniary benefits for
the employees of the Institute on their
(b)
To advise and disseminate information on training;
retirement, resignation, discharge or
Information on training is provided to all stakeholders via training news, web,
other termination of service or in the
newspapers and radio. Specific advice given to employers whenever requested.
event of their sickness or injury, and for
their dependents, and for that purpose
(c)
To provide training to persons outside the scope of the levy order on terms and
shall effect policies of insurance, establish
conditions determined by the Authority;
pension and provident funds or make
such other provision as may be necessary
Training provided to Prison department, rehabilitation for prisoners, and school teachers
to secure for such employees and their
for EIE programs.
dependents any or all of the pecuniary
benefits to which the provisions of this
(d)
To provide consultancy service to employers and other persons;
paragraph relate; and
Consultancy services provided upon request from employers. Areas include ISO-QMS, 5S,
(p) Shall, subject to the provisions of this
QC, Benchmarking, Productivity Measurement, GP etc.
Act, do such other things as appear to
the Board necessary or expedient for
(e)
to issue certificates of competency registered within the National Qualifications

52

furthering the interests of the Institute.
framework or other qualifications, Certificates of attainment, completion are currently
being issued. Once NQF will be in place, the certificates will be issued based on
Franchising programs to other secondary
accreditation.
schools is also being undertaken.

Grants from the Fiji government and also
from overseas aid agencies have been
given to FIT.
Approved by the National Standards and Accreditation Council. 9D. The functions of
(The FIT functions as seen are not very the National Quality Awards Council are:
comprehensive and it is understood that
the FIT is an institution that will only
(a)
To develop framework for the purposes of achieving sustainable organizational
address academic training of industry as
excellence;
well as white collar personnel. It should
intake students directly from secondary
FBEA framework in place since 1999 and organizations are utilizing this. EiE framework
schools and from industry who may have
also in place.
already gained previously some form of
qualification and or experience)
(b)
to develop and apply systems of national awards for the purposes of recognizing
sustainable organizational excel ence;
(2) The Board may, after consultation
with the Minister, but not otherwise:
As per the Productivity Charter, 4 levels of recognition are under the FBEA with the
President’s Award being classified as world class. Government also began implementing
(a) Create
such
departments
the framework from 2006 as the Service Excellence awards.
within the Institute as the Board
considers expedient;
(c)
To develop and promote national productivity awareness on an annual basis;
(b)
Determine fees to be paid
Productivity Awareness campaign is held every year and activities of promotion are
in respect of programs and
undertaken by the Productivity Promotion department to cover organizations, schools
courses or otherwise; and
and the public.
(c)
Enter into agreements or
(d)
To establish productivity measurement, benchmarking and research facilities;
arrangements on behalf of the
Currently being undertaken with Technical Expert assistance through APO funding from
Institute with other institutions

53

of
further education for the
experts from NPC Malaysia as well as Australia.
provision of instruction or the
granting of degrees, diplomas,
(e)
To organise national conventions, seminars workshops for the purpose of promoting
certificates and other academic
organisational quality and productivity.
awards.

3.0 FIT’s role and functions under its act
is very clear and its association with

USP and the MOE is cordial and very
cooperative for the purpose of
National convention on QC held annually, seminars and workshops being held as part of
training, education and research
productivity promotion. TPAF also hosts international workshops for the government as
part of its obligation for APO member countries.
4.0 FIT is doing exactly what is required
under its Act. Section 5 (g) spells this
out clear without limitation, either 9F The functions of the National Standards and Accreditation Council are-
laterally or vertically.
(a)
To develop a National Qualifications Framework that complies with international
5.0 FIT’s audiences is not limited and
standards; PINZ has been contracted to provide consultancy to establish the NQF
including the apprentices from TPAF.
It is simply a question of viability (self
(b)
To develop, apply and carry out regular review of vocational competency standards
costed and profitable). It is accessible
relating to qualifications specified in the National Qualifications Framework; CBT and
to all people both locally and abroad.
setting of standards for 3 trades completed and 5 more currently about to be
But priority is to the local needs
completed. NQF Procedures and QA requirements being finalized through
consultation with stakeholders.
6.0 FIT is guided by its Council’s
Functions under Section 5 (c), (c) (a),
(c)
To arrange for the accreditation and Registration of training providers and trainers
(g), of FIT act
and to approve regular review of such accreditation and registration; While the
Grants section provides some accreditation currently, this will be part of NQF
7.0 FIT is accountable (in all aspects) to
requirement in the future and which is being addressed by the consultants.
the Minister of Education as specified
in the 1992 decree including the 1998
(d)
To administer and conduct national examinations and tests for trades and other
vocational skills pertaining to qualifications specified in the National Qualifications

54

amendment
Framework; National Trade tests have been conducted as per annual plans. Special
tests are given to candidates who demand for recognition of their skil s. These will be
8.0 FIT, USP and any other tertiary
captured in the NQF in the future
institutions to be responsible for
setting up independent accrediting
(e)
To manage national apprenticeship and traineeship programs where such training
body for technician and degree level
programs apply; National Apprenticeship scheme is well managed and draft
programmes
traineeship agreement is in place. This will be implemented from this year. With the
establishment of the NQF, the issue of flexible and accessible qualification system for
9.0 FIT act, clearly outlined that FIT is
vocational training will be taken care of.
tasked to meet the country’s
demands for skil training and
requirements under the functions of
the Council, Section 5 (f) of the act
(f)
To generally coordinate accessible and flexible qualification systems, the standards of
which are recognised internationally, to meet the national needs.




55

Table 4.3: Areas of Duplication of Programs of FIT, TPAF and Other Providers
Programmes
FIT
TPAF
Other Providers
1. Hospitality and
USP Equivalent- Nil
Tourism Training
Certificate in Front Office TPAF Equivalent TAFE NSW Statement of Attainment
(18 Weeks)
(SoA) in Hospitality Operations (Front Office & Reception

Services) – (8 Weeks)


USP-Nil
Certificate in Housekeeping TPAF Equivalent- Certificate of Attainment (CoA) in
(18 Weeks)
House keeping Services – Modules 1,2, 3 (12 Weeks)


USP-Nil
FIT: Certificate in Dining TPAF Equivalent- TAFE NSW Statement of Attainment
Room Services (18
(SoA) in Hospitality Operations (Food & Beverage) – (12

Weeks)
Weeks)

USP-Nil
FIT- Certificate in Baking TPAF Equivalent-Certificate of Attainment in Baking and
and Patisserie (36 Weeks) Patisserie (36 Weeks)


TPAF Equivalent- Certificate of Attainment in Food & USP-Nil
FIT- Trade Certificate in Beverage (36 Weeks)
Food & Beverage (3 Years
– including 1½ years
attachments)

USP-Nil
FIT- Trade Certificate in TPAF Equivalent- TAFE NSW Certificate III in Hospitality
Commercial Cookery (3 (Commercial Cookery) – (24 Weeks) TAFE NSW

Years – including 1½ Certificate IV in Hospitality Supervision (Cookery) – (20
years

attachment
Weeks) Certificate of Attainment in Commercial Cookery
(36 Weeks);


56



FIT- Certificate in
TPAF Equivalent- TAFE NSW Certificate III in Hospitality
Hospitality Operations 1 & Operations (General)
USP-Nil
2 (1½ Years – including ½

year attachment)


FIT Equivalent- Nil
USP -Nil
TPAF- TAFE NSW Certificate IV in Hospitality Supervision
(General or Cookery) – (18 Weeks)




TPAF Equivalent- TAFE NSW Advanced Diploma in USP-Nil
FIT- Diploma in Hotel Hospitality Management (20 Weeks)
Management 1 & 2 (1½

Years – including ½ year
attachment)


FIT Equivalent-Nil
USP- Undergraduate
TPAF- TAFE NSW Certificate III in Tourism Certificate in Tourism (1 Year);
Operations(Tour Wholesaling)– (18Weeks)



FIT Equivalent-Nil
TPAF- TAFE NSW Certificate IV in Tourism Operations USP-
Undergraduate
(General) – (18 Weeks)
Certificate in Tourism (1 Year);




FIT Equivalent-Nil;
USP- Undergraduate
TPAF TAFE NSW Advanced Diploma in Tourism
Diploma in Tourism (2
Management (18 Weeks)
Years)


USP-Undergraduate
FIT-Nil
TPAF –Nil
Bachelor Degree in Tourism
Management (3 Years)

57


USP-Postgraduate
FIT-Nil
TPAF –Nil
Certificate in Tourism (20
Weeks)

FIT-Nil
TPAF –Nil
USP – Postgraduate Diploma
in Tourism (1 Year)


USP- Degree (Tourism) – (1
FIT-Nil
TPAF –Nil
to 2 Years)
2.
TPAF Equivalent- TV and VCR Servicing) Certificate in USP- Nil
Electronics
FIT- Electronics
Industrial Electronic Servicing; Certificate in Electrical
Technician
Technician Training
Serviceman's Course; Certificate in Industrial Electronic

Training Program Program Electrical
Servicing
Wireman’s

Stage 1, 2 & 3

Information
USP- Nil
Technology
Equivalent or near
TPAF- diploma of IT networking (TAFENSW franchise)
Training
equivalent fit course-

Diploma in business

(applied computing). This
course is mostly focusing
on business aspects of it.
the practical or technical
aspect of
it is missing’

USP- Nil
Equivalent or near
TPAF- short courses/ professional training
equivalent FIT course- FIT

offers short courses

through
Learn
key
(e-learning)

58

Manufacturing
USP -Nil
Training
FIT-Nil
TPAF- Certificate in Specialized Machining ($1,150)

FIT-Nil
USP- Certificate in Apparel
TPAF- Certificate in Clothing Production – Home
& Textiles & B Ed (major)-
Economics & Vocational
Teachers
Program)
secondary 5
Textiles

($1,010)
modules.

FIT-Nil
USP- Certificate in Apparel
TPAF- Certificate in Contemporary Fashion
& Textiles & B Ed (major)-
secondary 5 Textiles


modules.

FIT-Nil
USP-Nil
TPAF- Certificate in Sewing Machine Mechanics;
Advanced Diploma in Manufacturing Technology



FIT-OFFERRED
USP- Offered however
TPAF Short Courses- Fabric Screen Printing;
together with other material
technologies e.g. Leather-


craft, pottery, sign
writing,
photography, art metal,
plastics, Tie & Dye and Drift-
wood designs.
This is a very general 100
level module as part of the
Technology discipline Very
specific and not mixed/ part of
the content of a single module.
Fabric textiles (what is it & the
care of the item included) is
part of the content

59


FIT-Nil
USP-Nil
TPAF- Leather-craft




FIT-Nil
TPAF- Pattern Making/ Grading
USP- Offered as Flat Pattern
Designing (manual) and
Advanced Pattern


Designing (CAD- Accumark &
PDS 2000).This included
pattern Grading and a
foundation
for
creative
design development in Apparel
Manufacturing.
PQTD -
FIT Equivalence-
USP Equivalence- Certificate
Productivity &
Certificate in Business Certificate III in Financial Services (Accounting)- 1 in Business (Accounting)
Quality Training/ (Accounting)
Semester of 18 Weeks
Commerce &

Accounting
Courses



FIT Equivalence-None
USP Equivalence- Diploma in
TPAF- Certificate IV in Financial Services (Accounting-1 Business (Accounting)
Semester of 18
Weeks




FIT Equivalence- Diploma
USP Equivalence- Diploma in
in Business (Accounting) - TPAF- 3 Diploma of Accounting-1 Semester of 18 Weeks Business (Accounting)
4 Semesters


60


FIT Equivalence-None
USP Equivalence- Diploma in
TPAF- 4 Advanced Diploma of Accounting-1 Semester of Business Accounting
18 Weeks




FIT Equivalence-None
USP Equivalence- Certificate
TPAF- Advanced Diploma of Quality Management-3 in Management studies

Semesters of 18
weeks



FIT Equivalence-None
USP Equivalence- Diploma in
TPAF- Certificate IV in Business Marketing- 1 Semester Business Marketing
of 18 Weeks




FIT Equivalence-None
USP Equivalence- Diploma in
TPAF- Diploma of Business Marketing-2 Semester of 18 Business Marketing
Weeks



USP Equivalence- Diploma in
FIT Equivalence-None
TPAF- Advanced Diploma of Business Marketing- Business Marketing
1Semester of 18
Weeks



USP Equivalence-None
FIT Equivalence-None
Industrial Engineering.

61

Discussion of the Findings
Introduction
This section discusses the three tables presented above. In doing so, it addresses the TOR
of the review. As already stated, most informants to the review exercise have the familiar
catchphrase for TVET. It is still perceived as the ‘second best’ option for students who do
not succeed in the academic streams. This is undoubtedly true, but cannot really be
changed until the wage gap between white-collar and blue-collar is reduced, a vigorous
TVET education program is mounted and the commitment level of policy makers and other
stakeholders is lifted.
This finds support in the 2000 Education Commission Report (Sharma 2000) that notes
Fiji’s education system is so accustomed to academic education that strong
parental pressure for academic credentials has made the TVET program a
second-class option rather than a ‘second chance’ education. This can be
explained in part by the difference in salary of blue collar workers compared to
that for white collar workers. Until wages for blue collar workers are more
attractive, the status of TVET will continue to be below that of an academic
education.
Therefore, the Ministry of Education ought to review its education system and the
respective Education Acts making vocational education an equally important component of
the total learning system. Currently, vocational education only receives less than one
percent of the total education budget. In order to improve vocational education, the
Government and the other stakeholder commitment is vital.
To-date the Government has been mostly engaging foreign consultants and researchers to
advise it on educational reforms and development. There is not any shortage of local
consultants. Therefore, the Government must now employ local persons to advise on
matters such as indigenous pedagogy and local knowledge systems.
Particular emphasis must be given on developing a more holistic education comprising
formal, technical and vocational and citizenship education. Most informants to the review
team stressed the important of educating people about the importance of technical and
vocational education. According to them, not much success can be obtained in this direction
unless all the stakeholders are ready to accept it and are fully committed to it. “We need to
conduct a lot of advocacy for parents. NGO’s can be used to advocate TVET to parents and
students. There is need to empower women in our society so that they can act as change
agents of TVET at all levels of the community” (Field Notes, Ministry of Health, 2007).
FIT, TPAF and Education Acts: As already mentioned, the FIT and TPAF Acts are
Government legislations. These institutions as well as other providers of TVET and schools
are established and governed by the Education Act. However, the FIT and TPAF Acts were
developed separately and this has led to misunderstanding and duplication of activities and
responsibilities. Initially, FIT was established to cater for post-secondary pre-service
courses and programs and TPAF for in-service.
However, there is sufficient evidence to show that the relationship and coordination
amongst the various providers of technical and vocational education is minimal, especially
between FIT and TPAF. Hence, there is duplication of facilities, courses and programs
resulting into unnecessary wastage of limited resources available for TVET. It is reinforced
that FIT must concentrate on pre-service programs and TPAF on in-service and this can be
facilitated well if there is only one overall national education and training organization for
policy, coordination, quality assurance and monitoring. A College of TVET can fulfil this
need by providing an overall leadership and management structure. It is reiterated that if
and when the proposed Fiji National University is established, TVET could be one of its
Colleges. It is stressed, however, that Fiji is not able to afford another university at the
moment and the technical, vocational education and training needs at the degree and
postgraduate levels can be met by the existing universities. What is really needed is the
establishment of partnership relations among the tertiary institutions facilitating pathway

62

arrangements for cross-crediting courses and programs and transfer of students from one
institution to another.
The proposed structural framework is essential to improve coordination amongst various
modes of education such as academic, technical and vocational, and distance and flexible
learning. It would also provide cost-effectiveness and internal efficiency measures, ensure
quality, equity `and access, ensuring organizational and management effectiveness. This
coordination can be established satisfactorily by the Education Act. In fact, there is no need
for separate Acts for FIT and TPAF. These institutions should be established under the
Education Act and managed by respective policies and regulations.
Besides its function under the old FNTC Act (1985) and the current TPAF’s National
Training and Productivity Council, TPAF has acquired two other roles on productivity under
the National Quality Award Council and National Qualification and Standards under the
National Standards and Accreditation Council. Its links to MOE and USP are through
functions of the three councils on training, productivity and qualification standards
framework. TPAF is the Asian Productivity Organisation on productivity in Fiji, for example,
for Fiji Business Excellence Award, TPAF is the driving force. Vodafone won the national
gold award for its excellent performance. Vodafone and Sheraton Fiji went further to win the
international awards.
As mentioned earlier, FIT has developed out of proportion and perhaps may not be very
clear about its responsibilities as given in the Act. Its relationship with MOE and USP is not
cordial. There is need to construct clear pathways among these organizations. The
Education Act must perform an umbrella function and oversee vocational education and
training in all providers and at all levels – kindergarten, primary, secondary and post-
secondary. Therefore, in demarcating responsibilities, FIT must concentrate on pre-service
post-secondary TVET and TPAF on in-service training as well as productivity and
qualification standards framework. The Education Act must oversee all modes of teaching
and learning and the related processes.
It is important to stress that the contemporary demand for skills development is such that a
doubling of the output of FIT would not meet the demand. Therefore, there is a need for
more coordination between the two institutions. FIT, therefore, must concentrate on
certificate and diploma level technical and vocational education and training in order to cope
with the increasing skill demands of industries as well as the primary industry sector of the
economy with particular emphasis on agriculture and related activities. As already
mentioned there is no need for a separate Act for TPAF because its functions are not
limited to training provision only. They include incentives for training, apprenticeship, trade
testing, NQF and productivity promotion.
Robustness of the Acts in meeting the country’s skill demands
Numerous submissions to the review team show that both FIT and TPAF are not
satisfactorily following their core functions as provided for in their Acts and have been
performing activities beyond their boundaries of operations. For example, TPAF provides
pre-service programs in hospitality arguing that FIT was not able to meet the workforce
demands of tourist industry alone. Moreover, these institutions have begun offering degree
and post-degree studies programs. It is reiterated that they ought to concentrate on
certificate and diploma level qualifications in technical and vocational education and training
to meet the country’s skill demands for the industrial sector including primary industries. To
rationalize this there is a need for only one overall national training authority for policy,
coordination, quality assurance and monitoring.
The findings also show that both FIT and TPAF mainly concentrate on developing industrial
and professional skills and not on simple life-skills needed by those who do not qualify to
enrol in these institutions. Therefore, a vast majority of rural and urban poor are either
under-employed or join the ranks of unemployed. Perhaps, the proposed quality TVET
centres would address this problem to some extent, however, the respective Education Act
and the policies and regulations of FIT and TPAF ought to reflect this clearly.



63

Gender participation
According to the submissions from Ministry of Health, women are under-represented in
technical vocational education and training programs. The Ministry argued that women can
play a significant role in promoting TVET especially life-skills for self-employment at home
and community levels. Moreover, through TVET, women can also facilitate values-based
education that include a culture of peace, citizenship and environmentally sound
sustainable development. The current FIT, TPAF and Education Acts do not cater for these
potentials of TVET. As stressed elsewhere in the report, TVET has the potential to provide
values education that is greatly needed to address Fiji’s present social, economic and
political turbulence.
The proportion of girls in technical vocational education and training courses ranges from
20-40 percent of total enrolments at the institution level. However, almost all women in
these institutions are enrolled in traditional home-oriented training courses such as sewing,
cooking, food technology, housekeeping and the like. Girls tend to be either under-enrolled
in TVET courses or pigeonholed into traditional female occupations especially home
economics and office technology. In terms of equity, boys continue to be over represented
in the enrolment statistics in those years for which data are available. The only exception is
in vocational centres in tourist areas where hospitality-related courses are in demand there
is a high representation of female students. In rural areas, however, low levels of female
enrolment prevail and one of the main reasons for this is the lack of hostel facilities for girls.
TPAF does not even keep statistics on its trainees by sex, and reportedly almost all are
males. As shown in Chapter 3, about 36 percent of FIT students are female and are mainly
in commerce (about 63 percent of the total), general studies (about 58 percent) and hotel
and tourism (about 72 percent).
At FIT the students have the preference to take whatever programme they wish. As such,
more female students stil opt to take up feminine type subjects like hospitality and
commerce. Other masculine trade courses have more male students. A small number of
female students have now begun to do courses such as construction, electrical, plumbing
and welding fabrication (FIT Management, 2007).
TPAF have no strict rules in gender enrolment and students are welcomed in whatever
courses they want to pursue. However, perception of education and TVET in Fiji is such
that construction is for boys and catering and tailoring are for girls (TPAF Management,
2007).
Mismatch between skill supply and demand
The inputs to the review suggest that there is mismatch of skills from supply and demand.
For example, a number of graduates from FIT and other TVET providers with carpentry and
joinery or plumbing certificates seek clerical jobs at civil service. It is suggested that FIT and
other private TVET providers must provide simple courses in project planning and
management so that the graduate are able to get involved in basic wage employment or
self-employment. In this regard, it is suggested that the secondary schools should realign
their programs with FIT so that there is a clear pathway that the students can follow.
Most submissions to the review indicate that vocational education must begin from primary
schools. For example, the pathway that exists from the Champagnant Technical School to
the Monfort Boys Town is a very good model for Fiji’s education system to adopt. It is
pointed out that the graduates from the latter are competent trades-persons and are
usefully engaged in wage or self-employment. Similar pathways from primary through
secondary to FIT and TPAF would be a progressive way forward in skilling and up-skilling
the country’s workforce.
It is further suggested that the Fiji Government through legislation must financially support
local TVET providers rather than foreign institutes that concentrate on foreign skills training.
The review reveals that through FNPF funding some foreign-owned and managed TVET
providers attracted a lot of ‘best’ qualified students who upon graduation immigrate to the
providers’ home country.
Australia Pacific Technical College (APTC) has launched its programs with its head office in
Suva for the South Pacific. Their programs are stationed at different schools and

64

institutions. For example, Construction is based at TPAF and Automotive Engineering at
ASCO Motors. In the long run, it may provide some healthy competition amongst training
providers thus lifting the quality of skills training in the country. However, the retention of
skilled human resources within the country is more important than competition. It is
suggested that the Government must support TVET in local committee-managed schools
because they are better equipped and managed than the Government managed schools.
Both FIT and TPAF are offering tertiary level courses in collaboration with offshore
universities. The TPAF Act states that TPAF may enter into contract with other tertiary
institutions to carry out its functions. In a meeting with USP for instance, TPAF has stressed
that it would be prepared to franchise USP programs using the modalities that would enable
it to take programs to the workplace especially for those who are already employed. This
move to offshore universities is argued on the grounds that the local universities do not
provide such programs and courses. There is a need, therefore, to establish better working
relations among the tertiary institutions thus avoiding duplication of resources. This report
suggests the setting up of higher education commission that could set clear guidelines for
the establishment of institutes for tertiary education.
Mismatch between theory and practice
The courses at FIT have more theory than practical work compared to TPAF short industry
focus programs. It is believed that the FIT programs have been shortened at the expense of
the quality. The courses at FIT must be industry-driven and focus on competency ratings.
For example, LTA accepts FIT students on work attachment and some even are taken on
permanent employment on graduation. However, LTA felt that the course structure of FIT
and the delivery mode of automotive engineering need to improve to cater for road
transport. LTA would like to have students with both theory skills and knowledge and not
merely a diploma with theoretical examination passes.
There is a mismatch of supply and demand resulting in oversupply of graduates for
irrelevant trades which are the not in demand. FIT doesn’t meet the industry needs, for
example, Electronic Fuel Injection engine needs to be introduced in the courses with the
Standard four- strokes/carburetion-type engines. Most of its engines are still imperial-type.
There are too many ‘dummy-type practical’ work done during training at FIT where students
are there for the purpose of completing the practical hours required to fulfil the practical
component of the course. Students are given short tests at LTA but apparently they do not
know most of the answers to the practical questions. This is a reflection of guided-study to
memorise the answers, pass examinations and to qualify for credentials. In this regards,
TPAF provides specific training for up-skilling employees from the industrial sector.
In the early years of its inception, FIT used to have 14 weeks for the trade certificate
program. For the same program now it has reduced the duration of the program to eight
weeks thus producing more graduates but on the expense of the quality of training
especially on its on-the-job training component. Therefore, firms such as ASCO motors and
Carpenters motors have to provide further in-house training in order to bring their trade-
persons to the required international level. It was pointed out by the industries, in particular,
that both FIT and TPAF need to improve the quality of their facilities and equipment.
It is pleasing to learn, however, that TPAF has moved away from training on “dead” engines
and now provides training on “running” engines. A process control laboratory has been
developed in order to provide actual conditions as prevalent in a factory environment. Given
the increasing need for industrial automation, training development of mechatronics, it is
now establishing a mechatronics training laboratory and has been doing extensive training
in Programmable Logic Controls and automation systems. This is an impressive step
forward because TPAF was set up to focus on the industrial sector that includes agricultural
mechanization.
Franchise program and Mobile Training Unit
Two most innovative aspects of the FIT programs are its franchise program for secondary
schools and the mobile training unit for electrical and electronic engineering. The concept of
franchising trade training is sound in terms of moving trade training down from tertiary to
secondary level where a large number of secondary school leavers could receive a ‘second
chance’ education. However, the FIT plays very little role in quality assurance of the training

65

in the franchise courses apart from initial screening of the institutions, provision of a
standard curriculum and the administration of the final examination. It provides very little
teaching materials and equipment, if any, to the secondary schools that are taking the
program and hardly provides any professional development programs for instructors or
teachers.
On a positive note, the FIT franchise program has given students the opportunity for
‘second chance’ education otherwise they would have dropped out of the secondary school
education. The program has raised the status of the vocational programs in secondary
schools.
Franchise program fees have been recently raised to $180 per stage from the initial $80.00.
Schools complained that although the fee has increased the service has remained the
same. TPAF provides the Class 3 Trade Test for a trade certificate qualification to
vocational students that have completed the two years vocational training at $65.00 per
stage. The schools expressed similar sentiments for TPAF.
The proposed 20 quality centres
The proposed 20 quality vocational centres in various parts of Fiji are a progressive move
and will address some of the concerns of the FIT franchise program. However, before
establishing these centres it is important to improve infrastructure, staffing qualification and
industry experience, readiness of the stakeholders and the availability of resources,
equipment and facilities. The notion of quality assurance is an essential process in any
organisation. In the FIT corporate plan there are provisions for offshore program
assessment. To what extent this aspect of the Act is followed was not clear.
Apprenticeship
According to the TPAF Act, one of the important aspects of its work is apprenticeship.
Apprenticeship scheme has been reintroduced recently by the Government after a lapse of
almost ten years. This process is very important exercise to improve the quality of trade
skills of the workers. The major complain in this regard is the mismatch between the theory
work that is provided by FIT and the practical work that is obtained from TPAF. Therefore,
FIT and TPAF must work closely to improve the quality of revived apprenticeship scheme.
However, most industries do not have apprenticeship scheme. To improve the quality of
trade skills in our industries and other sectors of the economy it is important to pay greater
emphasis to apprenticeship and it must be operated in partnership including FIT, TPAF,
industries and the Government. Competency Based Training (CBT) operating within the
national qualification framework must be stressed at all levels in TVET programs. According
to ASCO Motors, “What the students need is financial management training. Sometimes
TPAF Training is somewhat irrelevant and some of its instructors do not have relevant
industry experience but use the internet to get information on the topics required”(Interview
Input, ASCO Motor Traders, 2007). Nabua Garment School is operated by TPAF as an in-
service training program. Such in-service training specifically for the formal sector is equally
important.
In summary, it is stressed that both the institutes are attempting to do their best. However,
they are not robust enough in producing suitably qualified human resources required for the
industries and other sectors of the economy. In particular, they have made very little effort
in preparing skilled workforce for our primary industry especially the agricultural sector. This
is largely owing to their uncontrolled growth, unnecessary duplication of responsibilities,
poor linkage with the industries and poor coordination amongst the different providers of
TVET.
TPAF, however, has opted to use their trainers as the examiners for skills test. According to
the Director General of TPAF all the technical trainers are former apprentices and have
worked at least eight years in industry (Interview Input, 2007). TPAF programs are designed
such that 70 percent of the course is workshop based. This is a progressive step forward
and it is anticipated that similar initiative will be taken by all TVET providers.

TVET Management

66

The MOE administers TVET in secondary schools and vocational centres. Private education
providers do not have any proper monitoring system by the MOE to keep track of the
standard of their programs. FIT and TPAF have their individual legislative Acts that make
them semi-autonomous under different Government ministries: the MOE and the Ministry of
Labour, Industrious Relation and Employment respectively. They are managed by their
respective Boards that operate within the confines of their Acts.
FIT and MOE are coordinated through their vertical linkages, that is, secondary school
graduates move up to tertiary studies through franchise arrangement. However, TPAF
seems to operate largely on its own without much relationship with school-based training
programs. It is reiterated that there is need for one overall controlling authority for policy,
coordination, monitoring and quality assurance.
At present there is not any national policy for all TVET providers to follow. They feature only
marginally in national development plans. The absence of this national policy makes it
difficult for the providers of TVET to develop coherently.
According to TPAF, its strategy plan has direction on social values. Mission, vision and
values are decided by the Board with particular emphasis on ‘servant-leadership’ or
‘customer-orientation’. TPAF conducts regular training surveys based on the needs of the
industrial sector. Based on the feedback, it discusses its annual plan, marketing strategy
and budgeting with the Fiji Employers Federation and the Fiji Chamber of Commerce before
making decisions. It gathers all the necessary information at the beginning of the year and
conduct SWOT analysis as well. TPAF argues that its management and decision-making
processes are the product of a wide participation.
National Qualification Framework (NQF)
Consistent with the TPAF Act, it has prepared a draft NQF. However, TPAF has been
criticized for being the ‘player’ as well as the ‘referee’ and has vested interest in NQF
because it is seen as the financier, provider and assessor of training. Submissions to the
review exercise show that the responsibility of NQF ought to be given to an independent or
neutral organisation under the Education Act. It must be staffed by suitably qualified and
experienced persons.
The review team endorses the view that NQF in TVET is a progressive way forward for
relative skills development and productivity. It would provide the appropriate ‘benchmark’ for
all skills training to all TVET providers and would facilitate mobility of students from one
provider to another without losing any credits obtained. It is suggested that NQF must be
the product of wide consultation process comprising TVET partners such as the industries,
Government, schools, tertiary institutions, other training providers and other members of the
stakeholder community.
Reconcile supply and demand of skills
There is hardly any mechanism or system in place to channel resources for training in trade
of greatest demand. The construction industry, for example, had acute shortage of
appropriately skilled trade-persons in the construction industry in 2002 and requests were
made to the TVET providers to fulfil this need. However, skills training did not take place
until 2005/2006 at a time when construction activity had slowed down considerably. There
is need to create a ‘training market-type organization’ that prioritize training areas and look
for funding. The training providers then could bid for such the training projects and those
that could provide quality training be awarded funding for the project.
Research-based data
In order to convince policy-makers and aid donors, there is a need for a reliable data bank.
There is shortage of reliable qualitative data on the management and implementation
process of TVET in Fiji. Important data about the functions and the scale of the operations
of the TVET system are in short supply. There is hardly any research-based data on
important areas of TVET such as its teaching-learning process, emigration of skilled
workers, where-about of the graduates, facilities and equipment, skills supply and demand,
demand areas for vocational education, recruitment, selection and professional
development of staff, assessment and evaluation process and the duplication of courses,
programs and resources. Moreover, action research should be an ongoing part of the TVET

67

management and implementation processes. This will facilitate ongoing improvement of the
TVET processes. Furthermore, reliable research-based data on trends and issues are
essential for monitoring progress and developing policies and priorities.
Multi-skilling
Experience and ‘multi-skilling’ are key factors in meeting the skills demands. Emigration
removes a significant proportion of workers who have acquired a reasonable level of
expertise. This results in a small pool of people who might progress to management
positions. Not all are suitable and therefore the need to bring expatriates becomes
necessary. Expatriates also have the advantage of a wider base of experience. For
example, a chef in a Fiji resort may only draw on his/her experiences in a small number of
resorts in Fiji. An Australian chef could bring in a wealth of international experience. It is
therefore essential for FIT and TPAF and other providers to provide multi-skills to our
students. In particular, emphasis must be placed on life-skills as already mentioned
elsewhere in this report.
Curriculum relevance
The curriculum should be developed in consultation with the industries, the Governments
and other stakeholders so that it meets the needs of society as well as various sectors of
the economy. Such a curriculum would also enable students to take up education pathways
that would increase their employable opportunities. In many cases there is a mismatch
between curriculum content and the needs of employers. The present curriculum of FIT and
vocational secondary school-based centres tends to be rather theoretical and not
competency-based. Curriculum is a ‘living entity’ and therefore its development ought to be
a continuous process. For example, the FIT franchise program on office technology
includes shorthand, a skill that is no longer in demand in most businesses. The curriculum
also needs to be diversified to relate better to the vast natural resources Fiji is blessed with.
In addition, enterprise education should be integrated into all the subjects of the school
curriculum.
There is little evidence that suggests long term training programs that provide better
employable opportunities. A number of employers stated that they primarily want people
who had basic skills and knowledge and they can provide the necessary on-the-job training.
Quality as inputs
The submissions also show that the main concern in TVET programs and courses is quality
that includes standards, instructors and equipment.
Standards: It was discovered that ‘benchmarks’ are not set for most programs and therefore
it is difficult to judge their ‘quality’. Certainly requirements for skills testing exist, but these do
not appear to be adhered to vigorously. A pass is possible even when available equipment
and tools are rudimentary. Industry skill standards which specify the capability required to
perform in a given job provide ‘benchmarks’ against which qualifications can be granted but
these are not followed strictly.
Where assessment is valid and reliable, industry can feel confident that possession of a
qualification means a particular level of performance. Industry standards, however, do not
yet exist in Fiji. Nonetheless, two key observations are that many vocational centres lack
essential equipment and the instructors lack the necessary technical expertise. Employers
generally do not value the qualifications but largely rely on their own judgement about the
employee’s performance.
Consequently, qualifications are not equated with a set level of performance requiring
employers to make their own assessment. Current systems such as franchising by FIT and
skill tests by TPAF assist but do not guarantee quality. Both approaches judge quality from
examination results making the teaching learning process exam-oriented. An overall
authority to manage TVET and NQF, discussed earlier, would address the ‘quality’ issues
considerably.
According to TPAF, however, the drop in pass percentages of higher level exams is to be
expected because they become more difficult to pass. It is also important to note that trade
tests are designed for those who have not had the opportunity to undertake formal training.
Many candidates come straight from the field without any training to sit the examinations.

68

Thus output quality of TPAF training cannot be measured in terms of overall trade test
passes. It is therefore important that the candidates receive formal training before they sit
the trade tests. This would facilitate the integration of theory and practice necessary for
conceptualizing relevant issues and problems.
Instructors: TVET is taught in MOE-affiliated institutions by teachers with formal education
credentials. Most of these instructors lack work experience in industries which is not a
requirement for teaching jobs in secondary schools. Substantial numbers of vocational
teachers are unqualified in the areas in which they are teaching, including about 42 percent
in office technology, 44 percent in automotive engineering and 59 percent in carpentry and
joinery (Field Notes, 2007) .
Moreover, these teachers have very little opportunity for regular up-skilling and industrial
attachment. In contrast, apprenticeship completion is a basic requirement for TPAF
instructors. A trade certificate from FIT is required for instructors in the vocational centres,
but FIT leaves practical training to work attachments which does not guarantee skills
acquisition. Employers mentioned that trade certificates from FIT does not guarantee
practical skills. At FIT only a minority of teachers have industrial experience in their own
fields. Teaching staff have little opportunity for regular up-skilling and industrial
attachments. FIT has used its own graduates to teach at the institution without intervening
work experience (Field Notes, 2007).
Equipment: Many secondary school TVET institutions are poorly equipped. The vast
majority of fixed equipment in secondary school workshops, such as in carpentry, is not in
working order. The staff complained that they had long since requested for necessary spare
parts from the MOE, but none were forthcoming (Field Notes, 2007). It is difficult to
understand how the trainees can pass FIT or TPAF tests without the required practical skills
which, in turn, depend on operable equipment. There is a need to set up a review team to
inspect the equipment, resources and facilities in all TVET centres and recommend the
resources that are required and the courses and programs can be offered. Student,
facilities, equipment and staff ratios are also important information before programs can be
introduced. The ‘clustering concepts’ suggested earlier is valuable in this regard.
Quality as outputs
Very little information is available on the standards achieved by graduates at the end of
their training, particularly in secondary schools and FIT. TPAF statistics show that the
success rate in Level 3 exams ranged from 66-75 percent but decreased thereafter to 50-66
percent for Level 2 and 40-65 percent for Level 1.
The public sector appears to be under-financing TVET. Allocations are insufficient to
provide an even distribution of minimum basic equipment in secondary schools. Both the
FIT and TPAF find it difficult to keep their equipment up-to-date with developments in the
industry. The Government subsidies for FIT have decreased substantially while enrolments
have increased. As a result, the average number of students per instructor has reached 30
which is rather large for skills training courses.
The three main TVET institutions - MOE, TPAF and FIT - mobilise substantial amounts of
private resources. A half the income of FIT comes from student fees. TPAF does not
receive government subsidy. It finances its programs through the training levy and trainee
fees. The committee-managed secondary schools enjoy substantial support from parents
and the school community.


69

Main justifications for duplication of courses and programs
This section concentrates mainly on Table 3. It provides the justifications for the duplication
of courses and programs. The most prevalent programs that are duplicated in the two
institutions lie in the field of tourism and hospitality. It is clear from the submissions that both
institutions are working hard to meet the labour force requirement and demand from the
hotel and tourism industry. Despite this duplication, both institutions are not able to meet the
industry needs.
Since most of the training duplication falls in TPAF, the following justifications were given by
TPAF for taking pre-service courses. It is recalled that under its Act, TPAF is to offer in-
service and not pre-service courses and programs.
A. Name of Programme: Hospitality and Tourism
1. FIT course - Certificate in Front Office (18 Weeks); TPAF Equivalent TAFE NSW-
Statement of Attainment (SOA) in Hospitality Operations (Front Office & Reception
Services) – (8 Weeks)

According to TPAF officials, this qualification provides an up-skilling option for its primary
market, the in-service hospitality front office and reception and reservation workers. This
SOA not only allows the in-service trainees to up-skill in their field of work but also obtain
qualifications in the remaining units of competency as laid down in the TAFE NSW
Certificate II or III Hospitality Operations programs.
This qualification is offered through different modes of delivery depending on the needs of
respective industries. It may be offered in-house, or on-the-job at the TPAF Training Centre.
TPAF has also introduced distance and home-study modes of delivery and these provide
workers from outer islands and remote locations the opportunity to learn more about their
respective trades. Through these modes, however, the theoretical components of the
courses are mainly taught. Therefore, ways should be found to cater for the practical side of
the courses.
It also caters for the pre-service markets that are in need of some basic training in order to
gain employment. These are also people who aspire to work at the front desk and/or
reservation section and wish to gain some basic training in a shorter period of time as
compared to the FIT options.
The programme is also suitable for those workers who do not meet the minimum
qualifications requirements (MQR) of FIT and USP. Such persons include unemployed
persons who had most probably exited from high school early, have started a family or
perhaps cannot gain entry to a job owing to the lack of knowledge and skills. Additionally,
some of these people wish to continue with their studies by enrolling in TPAF programs.
This is consistent with the rationale of TVET that emphasizes learning as a lifelong learning
process.
This program will provide current front office and reception operational level staff the
opportunity to further develop their skills and knowledge and progress to supervisory or
higher level positions within the hierarchy. Moreover, supervisory modules are integrated to
facilitate a more holistic and relevant assessment. Moreover, the program allows workers to
learn at their own pace. According to TPAF, his duplication is necessary to meet the
industry needs.

70

2. FIT- Certificate in Housekeeping (18 Weeks); TPAF Equivalent- Certificate of
Attainment (COA) in House Keeping Services – Modules 1,2, 3 (12 Weeks)
This TPAF qualification provides an up-skilling option for hospitality and housekeeping
workers. It is offered through different modes of delivery depending on the needs of
employers and employees. The program may be offered either in-house or on-the-job at the
TPAF Training Centres. The COA also caters for the pre-service students who need basic
training for employability. These are also people aspiring to work in the ‘accommodation
sector’. They wish to gain some form of basic training in a shorter period of time as
compared to the FIT option. The program itself is delivered in phases whereby learners are
expected to complete a module at a time. They are given a certain time span to complete
some relevant housekeeping practical hours at their own workplaces prior to the
commencement of the next module in the same program.
This program is suitable for workers or trainees who do not meet the MQR of FIT and USP.
Such persons include unemployed persons who had exited from high school early and are
not able to obtain employment owing to lack of knowledge and skills in this area. Both the
employers and the employees need this program. FIT cannot fulfil the demand alone and
hence its duplication becomes necessary.
3. FIT: Certificate in Dining Room Services (18 Weeks); TPAF Equivalent- TAFE NSW
Statement of Attainment (SOA) in Hospitality Operations (Food & Beverage) – (12
Weeks)

This qualification provides an up-skilling option for in-service hospitality and food and
beverage workers. It not only allows the in-service trainees to up-skill in this field but also
allows a pathway to complete the qualification by doing the remaining units of competency
in the TAFE NSW Certificate II or III in Hospitality Operations. This qualification is offered
through different modes of delivery depending on the needs of industry. It is offered in-
house and on-the-job at the TPAF Training Centre. TPAF has also introduced distance and
home-study components and these allow workers from outer islands and remote locations
the opportunity to continue learning at their own pace. The program is rather theoretical and
lacks the practical component.
This program also caters for the pre-service students who need of basic training in order to
obtain employment. These are also people aspiring to work in a dining room and bar
environment. They wish to gain some basic training in a short period of time as compared to
the FIT option. It is also suitable for those employees who do not meet the MQR of FIT and
USP.
This qualification provides an up-skilling option for its primary market, the in-service
hospitality and food and beverage workers. This SOA not only allows the in-service trainees
to up-skill in this field of work but also a pathway to complete the remaining units of
competency in the TAFE NSW Certificate II or III in Hospitality Operations. In addition, this
qualification is offered through different modes of delivery depending on the needs of
industry and the students. It may be offered in-house or on-the-job at the TPAF Training
Centre.







71

4. FIT- Certificate in Baking and Patisserie (36 Weeks) that is TPAF Equivalent-
Certificate of Attainment in Baking and Patisserie (36 Weeks)
This local qualification provides an up-skilling option for its primary market, the in-service
hospitality pastry workers. Moreover, this qualification is offered through different modes of
delivery depending on the needs of industry and the students. It may be offered in-house or
on-the-job at the TPAF Training Centre. It is also offered employing both these modes of
delivery. The COA also caters for the pre-service markets that are in need of some basic
training in order to obtain employment. These are also people aspiring to work in the baking
and pastry sections. The students wish to gain some form of basic training in a short period
of time as compared to the FIT option. The program is delivered in phases and the learners
are expected to complete a module at a time.
5. FIT- Trade Certificate in Food and Beverage (3 Years – including 1½ years
attachments); and is TPAF Equivalent of Certificate of Attainment in Food and
Beverage (36 Weeks)

This qualification provides an up-skilling option for its primary market, the in-service
restaurant and bar workers. It is offered through different modes of delivery depending on
the needs of industry and the students. It may be offered in-house or on-the-job at the
TPAF Training Centre. It is also offered employing both these modes of delivery. The CoA
also caters for the pre-service markets that are in need of some basic training in order to
obtain employment. These are also people aspiring to work in the food and beverage
section. They wish to gain some form of basic training in a short period of time as compared
to the FIT option. The program is delivered in phases whereby learners are expected
complete a module at a time.
The program is suitable for workers or trainees who do not meet the MQR of FIT and USP.
Such persons include unemployed persons who exited from high school early or cannot get
employment owing to a lack of knowledge and skills in this area.
6. FIT - Trade Certificate in Commercial Cookery (3 Years – including 1½ years work
attachment) and is TPAF Equivalent- TAFE NSW Certificate III in Hospitality
(Commercial Cookery) – (24 Weeks) TAFE NSW Certificate IV in Hospitality
Supervision (Cookery) – (20 Weeks) Certificate of Attainment in Commercial
Cookery (36 Weeks);

According to TPAF, this qualification provides an up-skilling option for its primary market
and the in-service hospitality - food and kitchen workers. This qualification is offered
through different modes of delivery depending on the needs of industry and the time
available to students. It may be offered in-house or on-the-job at the TPAF Training Centre.
It is also offered employing both these modes of delivery.
The COA also caters for the pre-service students that are in need of some basic training in
order to get employment. These people also aspire to work in the food and kitchen section
and wish to gain some form of basic training in a short period of time as compared to the
FIT option. The program is delivered in phases and learners are expected complete a
module at a time. It is also suitable for those workers who do not meet the MQR of FIT and
USP. Such persons include unemployed persons who had probably exited from high school
early or cannot enter the job market owing to the lack of knowledge and skills in this area.
Owing to the very high demand for cooks and chefs, this program supplements the Trade
Certificate in Cookery from FIT that cannot meet the demands the industry or those lost
through emigration.

72

7. FIT- Certificate in Hospitality Operations 1 & 2 (1½ Years – including ½ year
attachment) and is TPAF Equivalent- TAFE NSW Certificate III in Hospitality
Operations (General)

TPAF offers a supplementary multi-skilling program in hospitality to meet skill shortages in
this area at the operational level. This is referred to Tables 21 and 22 of the Fiji Tourism
Development Plan to the year 2016. This program comprises 80 percent practical and 20
percent theory components. Students enrolled in this program are introduced to most
commonly used systems like Micros Fidelio (larger properties) and Room Master (smaller
properties). Moreover, students have access to internet and a library which allows them to
carry on with individual learning and research access. The TPAF Centre at Namaka, Nadi
also has the necessary practical work areas to facilitate this type of learning. It has a
training restaurant, kitchen, hotel room, laundry, storeroom, reception desk, computer labs
with internet access and hotel training programs.
8. FIT- Diploma in Hotel Management 1 & 2 (1½ Years – including ½ year work
attachment) and is TAPF Equivalent- TAFE NSW Advanced Diploma in Hospitality
Management (20 Weeks)

To meet the demands set out in the Fiji Tourism Development Plan to the year 2016, TPAF
offers a supplementary multi-skilling program in hotel management to meet with industry’s
skill shortages in area of supervisory and middle managers.
This internationally recognised qualification provides a pathway for higher studies including
degree programs. There is already an existing arrangement with all Australian universities
with a Cross Credit option of one to two years for students who have completed the
Advanced Diploma program. This program is especially designed to cater for in-service
students requiring managerial training and is a pathway to supervisory or operational level
work in the industry.
9. TPAF- TAFE NSW Certificate III in Tourism Operations (Tour Wholesaling)–(18
Weeks) and is USP Equivalent-Undergraduate Certificate in Tourism (1 Year)
To meet the demands set out in the Fiji Tourism Development Plan to the year 2016, TPAF
offers a supplementary program in a multi-skilling in tourist operation especially tour
wholesaling to meet with the industry’s demand. This program introduces learners to tour
wholesaling and general tourism business practices including retail or wholesale travel
agency, tour operation, consultancy and the like. The program facilitates a hands-on
approach to learning as well as workplace practice. It is not a course as offered by USP and
enrols students who do not necessary qualify to take USP courses.
10. TPAF- TAFE NSW Certificate IV in Tourism Operations (General) – (18 Weeks) and
is USP Equivalent - Undergraduate Certificate in Tourism (1 Year);
To meet the demands set out in the Fiji Tourism Development Plan to the year 2016, TPAF
offers a supplementary program in a multi-skilling major field of tourist operations to meet
the respective industry needs. This program enrols students without any proper qualification
in the area of tourism. It also develops on the prior lessons that learners of general tourism
business practices such as retail or wholesale travel agency and tour operation have. It
allows learners a hands-on approach to learning as well as workplace practice at the
supervisory level. It is not a course as offered by USP and enrols students who do not
necessary qualify to take USP courses.

73

11. TPAF NSW Advanced Diploma in Tourism Management (18 Weeks) and is USP
Equivalent - Undergraduate Diploma in Tourism (2 Years)
To meet the demands set out in the Fiji Tourism Development Plan to the year 2016, TPAF
offers a supplementary program in a multi-skilling in the major field of tourist management.
This program develops on the prior lessons that learners of general tourism business
practices such as retail or wholesale travel agency and tour operations. It allows learners a
hands-on approach to learning as well as workplace practice at the supervisory level. The
program is not a requirement for the completion of general courses like those at USP’s
department of tourism. This program comprises 80 percent practical and 20 percent theory
components. Students enrolled in this program are introduced to most commonly used
systems like Micros Fidelio (larger properties) and Room Master (smaller properties).
Moreover, students have access to internet and a library which allows them to carry on with
individual learning and research access. The TPAF Centre at Namaka, Nadi also has the
necessary practical work areas to facilitate this type of learning. It has a training restaurant,
kitchen, hotel room, laundry, storeroom, reception desk, computer labs with internet access
and hotel training programs.
In this program there is a specific focus on middle management level modules especially in
the areas of management and accounting for tourism businesses, and the learners also get
the opportunity to learn how to develop and implement a tourism business plan. A
combination of knowledge and skills in operational modules and supervisory modules are
integrated to allow a more holistic and relevant assessment.
TAFE NSW updates the syllabus documents of its franchised courses to TPAF every
semester to ensure currency of content. Locally qualified and experienced industry persons
deliver these programs to the learners contextualizing concepts such as tour consultancies
to address the local needs.
This internationally recognised qualification provides a pathway for higher studies including
degree programs. There is already an existing arrangement with Australian universities with
a cross credit option of one to two years for students to complete the Advanced Diploma in
Tourism Management, which is the pinnacle of this TAFE NSW pathway.

B.

Name of Program: Electrical and Electronics
1. FIT- Electronics Technician Training Program - Electrical Wireman’s Stage 1, 2 & 3
and is TPAF Equivalent - TV and VCR Servicing, Certificate in Industrial
Electronic Servicing, Certificate in Electrical Serviceman's Course and Certificate
in Industrial Electronic Servicing.

According to TPAF, these programs have been designed in consultation with industry and
practical sessions are industry-based. For these courses FIT enrols most of its students
from the workplace or the industry and not many are graduates from secondary schools.
TPAF that is tasked to train the workforce enrols students from the industry as well as those
secondary school leavers do not wish to study at FIT. The demand for the TPAF programs
is greater than that of FIT. As mentioned earlier, electrical and electronics courses are
duplicated both at pre-service and in-service levels.







74

C.
Name of Programme: Information Technology Training
1. TPAF- Diploma in IT networking (TAFE NSW franchise) and is equivalent or near
equivalent FIT - Diploma in Business (applied computing)
The Diploma in IT networking offered by TPAF is equivalent to the Diploma in Business of
FIT. Both these courses are offered to pre-service and in-service students and mostly focus
on business aspects of IT. The program offered by TPAF specializes in networking and was
developed in Australia in consultation with the industry. It is based on technology which is
current such as wireless technology. The graduates of the program are absorbed in the
workforce easily. Moreover, this qualification is recognized internationally. Therefore, TPAF
provides opportunity to students to get this overseas qualification locally at a cheaper cost.

D.
Name of Programme: Manufacturing Type Training
1. TPAF- Certificate in Clothing Production – for Home Economics and Vocational
Education Teachers and is USP Equivalent to Certificate in Apparel and Textiles
The certificate in clothing production offered by TPAF is an in-service program for teachers
in the relevant subject area. It is offered on the request of the Ministry of Education to up-
skilling home economics vocational education teachers. The course is conducted at TPAF
Training Centres in Nabua and Salala Place, Lautoka during the school term `holidays until
it is completed. The duration of the course is 200 hours offered and can be completed in
two years. It is suitable for teachers who do not have experience in the TCF industry. The
five modules taken in this course is covered in the USP certificate and degree programs,
however, the Ministry of Education has requested for this up-skilling course because it is
not happy with the work of these qualified teachers in schools. There is duplication here and
it can be avoided by mutual discussion amongst the partners (USP, TPAF and MOE)
involved.

2. TPAF- Certificate in Contemporary Fashion that is USP Equivalent - Certificate and
Degree in Apparel and Textiles
The certificate in contemporary fashion is offered by TPAF to mature students who have
more confidence in obtaining training. It is offered at TPAF Nabua and Salala Place and
Namaka Primary School venues as evening and weekend classes. This program is
provided to up-skill workers who need to learn and improve fashion designing, pattern
making and pattern grading and caters pre-service and in-service students. The CAD
component is also offered at TPAF. The program covers three of the five design and textiles
modules offered by USP.
3. TPAF- Pattern Making/Grading that is USP Equivalent - Offered as Flat Pattern
Design (manual) and Advanced Pattern Design
Both USP and TPAF offer programs relating to designing with emphasis on CAD -
Accumark and PDS 2000. These programs included pattern grading and a foundation for
creative design development in apparel manufacturing. Pattern making and design
development are addressed separately so that each area is thoroughly covered either
manually or in computer aided design system. Both these institutions use gerber pattern
design systems. TPAF agues that it need to offer pattern making and grading (Manually &
CAD) because it has the expertise and the experience compared to USP. TPAF and USP
must rationalize these programs to avoid unnecessary duplication. It is also important to
note that these institutions offer these programs both at pre-service and in-service levels.

75

E.
Name of Programme: Commerce, Accounting and Finance
1. Certificate III in Financial Services (Accounting)- 1 Semester of 18 Weeks and is
FIT Equivalence- Certificate in Business (Accounting). (TPAF- three Diploma of
Accounting- 1 Semester of 18 Weeks; FIT Equivalence- Diploma in Business
(Accounting) - 4 Semesters. TPAF- Advanced Diploma of Accounting - 1
Semester of 18 Weeks)

According to TPAF, students in the Accounting courses are industry-based implying that all
students are in employment. The classes are scheduled in the evenings and weekends to
cater for this group of students. TPAF stresses that no other institution in Fiji provides
structured face to face classes at this magnitude for the working students. The TAFE
Certificate III and IV are pathways to the Diploma and Advanced Diploma of Accounting
courses. The Certificate III and IV are also specialized programs that target the clerical level
staff. Upon completion, students can get into the clerical level employment as well progress
to the diploma level. The contents are purely in the Australian context i.e. the Australian
Taxation and Corporations Laws are part of the course. Completion of the Advanced
Diploma of Accounting allows students to become provisional members of FIA and NIA
(Australia). The completion of the course also allows students accreditation into numerous
Australian universities where exemptions of one to one and half years in the Accounting
Degree program can be achieved. The qualification is designed to reflect the role of
employees working in accounting. The program is franchise to TAFE NSW. USP and FIT
also offer similar courses. The former offers both at pre-service and in-service levels. In the
case of FIT and TPAF this is not clear. There is a need for these institutions (USP, FIT and
TPAF) to rationalize their programs, avoid publication and establish pathway relations
facilitating cross credit arrangements.
Conclusion
In brief, it is reiterated that there is a need for a well-coordinated authority to manage all the
TVET programs including those at FIT, TPAF and USP. Vocational education in agriculture
is exceedingly important and must be perceived as a core subject in all TVET institutions.
The proposed restructuring of TVET program (see Figure 1) would provide an overall
administration and management structure for policy-making, coordination, quality assurance
and monitoring of technical and vocational education in the country with particular reference
to FIT, TPAF, primary and secondary schools, and other private providers including USP
and UOF. The proposed restructuring would also give the Government of Fiji the
opportunity to revisit the Education Act and the policies and regulations that govern primary,
secondary and tertiary institutions. There is need for this rationalization to improve
coordination amongst various modes of education such as academic, technical and
vocational, non-formal and informal education, and distance and flexible learning. This
initiative would provide cost-effectiveness and internal efficiency, ensure quality, equity and
access, promote organizational and management effectiveness and an education system
that is the key player in the national socio-economic and political development. It would also
place technical and vocational education in a broader perspective making it an important
component of the total learning system.



76


C h a p t e r
The Way Forward for TVET in Fiji: Recommendations
for Policy and Practice
5

Introduction
This chapter discusses briefly the important findings of the review exercise and then goes
on to recommend ways in which technical and vocational education may be taken forward
successfully. As already mentioned, particular reference is made to the functions of FIT and
TPAF. This review, as mentioned earlier, was commissioned by the Minister of Education
with a set of well articulated terms of reference.
It is recalled that the research methodology adopted in this review took a phenomenological
perspective meaning that we attempted to understand TVET and the functions of FIT, TPAF
and other providers from the viewpoints of the research respondents and the documents
that were made available. In this perspective, a more ‘dialogic’ strategy was taken to collect
data. In this way, we were able to collect information that represents the views of a diverse
section of the relevant stakeholder community. It was possible to draw policy-makers,
policy-users, employers, private sector, students and self-employed persons into TVET
policy development and management. The two institutions, namely, FIT and TPAF provided
valuable submissions based on the ‘terms of reference’ and their appropriate documents.
This information was useful in formulating the recommendations that are provided in the
second section of this chapter.
The University of the South Pacific (USP) and the University of Fiji (UOF) also provided
valuable information especially as regards to the establishment of the proposed Fiji National
University (FNU). The review findings clearly indicate that the establishment of the third
university is not a priority consideration in the present economic and political climate of the
country. The discussion on proposed FNU, however, enabled us to locate TVET especially
FIT and TPAF in a ‘bigger picture’ emphasizing the potential it has for the overall social,
economic and political development. Recommendations to this regard are presented in the
following sections of this chapter.
It is reiterated that technical vocational education and training in Fiji has suffered from the
perception of it being a ‘second class option’ for those who are ‘pushed outs’ from more
academic education streams. In recent decades, however, this perception has been
challenged. This is mainly because of the changing character of work and its impact on
social and economic development. The world of work is now becoming more
technologically-based and diverse thus reducing employment opportunities of unskilled
workers. Therefore, the ‘spotlight’ now is on technical and vocational education that is the
key player in ‘life-skilling’ and ‘semi- skilling’ primary and secondary school students and
‘up-skilling’ and ‘multi-skilling’ industry and other workplace employees.
As already mentioned, technical and vocational education can provide both the link with
productive work and motivation for life-long learning and training. If organized well, it can
contribute to sustainable development, education for all, knowledge society and citizenship.
This is reinforced by UNESCO (in Prospects, vol. XXXV, no3, September 2005: 270) in the
following words:
Often considered as a second-class education compared to the mainstream
academic branch, TVET is increasingly seen as the master key to poverty
alleviation and social cohesion and a chance for countries to jump on the
bandwagon of development and globalization.
As regards to the potential technical and vocational education has in development, it is
stressed that unless the rationale and benefits of TVET are clearly understood and placed in

77

the ‘centre-point’ of education policy and practice. Not much success in this front can be
achieved with the present ‘half-hearted’ commitment on the part of the National Government
and other stakeholders. In particular, TVET funding provision must be improved and regular
‘empowerment programs’ must be conducted for all stakeholders, especially the policy-
makers and policy-users. Such programs are necessary because ‘productivity’ is ‘people
oriented’ and depends on effective human resources and reward systems put in place
together by a quadrant forum, comprising representatives from the respective sections of the
government, employers, trade unions and training institutions.
Discussion of the key Findings

78

1. Fiji’s education system is highly academic-oriented. Strong parental pressure for
academic credentials, therefore, has made the TVET program a ‘second-class’
option rather than an important component of the life-long learning process. This
can be explained in part by the difference in salary of ‘blue collar’ workers when
compared to that of ‘white collar’ employees. Until wages for blue collar workers are
more attractive, the status of TVET will continue to be seen below that of academic
education.
2. The findings of the review exercise, however, show that TVET is now receiving
some attention as an important partner in the overall educational, social and
economical development. At the personal and institutional levels, nevertheless,
there is much to be desired. It was revealed from the findings that the Ministry of
Education maintains very little contact with the industries and the informal sector,
such as farmers, and develops its programs in isolation from the labour market. On
the other hand, FIT and TPAF have employer representation on their Boards and
through their industrial advisory committees they receive feedback on the relevance
of their programs. Through this close relationship, TPAF checks its productivity
enhancement. This close relationship also facilitates student workplace attachment
which is an integral part of FIT, TPAF and MOE programs. A study by Sharma
(2000) records that the workplace attachment of the TVET program of the MOE is
poorly organized and the students do not receive any useful on-the-job training. In
the case of FIT and TAPF, this seems satisfactorily facilitated. There is,
nonetheless, need for more information on the monitoring of the on-the-job training.
3. One of the key functions of TVET initiative is to increase productivity in all sectors of
the economy. To achieve this, it is necessary to prepare well-skilled, motivated and
ethically sound people. The workplaces should create a healthy organisational
culture and climate for workers to release their potential, adopt ‘work smart
philosophy’ and develop themes such as capacity building, initiative-taking,
evolutionary planning and vision-building.
4. Both these institutions have not paid much attention to the rural, island and informal
sectors. This report suggests the establishment of TVET centres in various areas of
the country enabling all the sectors of the economy and people to benefit from
technical and vocational initiatives. It is pleasing to note that the Government has
already established quality TVET centres at RKS and Naiwaicoba. However, this
initiative should be revisited and a more demand and context-based courses be
offered. This can be made possible by wider consultation with the local stakeholder
communities and institutions. Furthermore, FIT and TPAF should be involved at the
policy, planning, implementation, assessment phases and supervision phases of
these centres.
5. Clearly the lack of relevance of some of the TVET courses and programs, readiness
of stakeholders, unavailability of appropriate resources and reliable research-based
data are the major obstacles in the successful management and implementation of
technical and vocational programs. It is strongly recommended that these 4Rs
(relevance, resources, readiness and research) need to be addressed at FIT, TPAF
and other TVET providers. And this can be done effectively by empowerment
programs including workshops for stakeholders such as program coordinators,
students and their parents. It is also important to prepare female coordinators
together with their male counterparts. These programs would boost the work ethics
of the employees, employers and the policy makers.
6. It was found that there is lack of functional labour market information. Thus it is
difficult to provide input to the training on the nature of skill shortages in the
economy. Such information is also not available for the primary industry such as
farming, fishery, lumber, mining and building industries. Moreover, up-to-date
information on where about of the FIT and TPAF graduates is not readily available.
It is important for the two institutions to conduct ‘tracer studies’ so that future needs
of the skilled labour force, with sound work ethics, can be prepared. Both FIT and
TPAF should create functional research units in their institutions with appropriately
qualified personnel.

79

7. The study found that the technical and vocational programs are constrained by lack
of both human and material resources. The ADB study (2007: 65) found that at FIT
only a minority of teachers have industrial experience in their teaching areas.
Moreover, the teachers have little opportunity for regular up grading of their skills
through industrial attachments. The study goes on to record that FIT had employed
its own graduates to teach at the institution without intervening work experience. It
was learnt that technical and vocational resources such as suitable equipment are
thinly distributed to about 60 secondary school-based TVET centres. Using the
‘clustering’ principle’, it is suggested that the resources be collected and supplied to
the proposed 20 technical and vocational centres. Similar sentiments are expressed
for technical and vocational teachers and managers. The secondary schools should
concentrate on the vocational courses of the school curriculum so that they can
prepare more informed job seekers with good work ethics including themes, such as
‘work smart’, quality work cycles and people driven productivity. These pre-
vocational market oriented courses would enable primary and secondary school
students to discover their potential and then develop it as their learning process
unfolds. It is recommended that pre-service and in-service programs in these
centres be managed both by FIT and TPAF respectively.
8. The Acts of FIT and TPAF indicate that the main aim of their programs is to provide
knowledge and skills to students so that they are productive in their jobs, either in
wage employment or self employment. The mismatch between knowledge and skills
acquired and those available in the labour market means wastage of resources
besides leaving the graduates underutilized. This mismatch yields unemployment
and other related social evils. The unemployment owing to the mismatch is not felt
much owing to the emigration of a significant portion of skilled workforce. However,
research studies are necessary so that correct information is fed into the planning
process of the future needs of these institutions. This need can be met by these
institutions themselves.
9. According to ADB study (2007: 73) the quality of technical vocational education and
training “remains a problem in most rural areas where training facilities are poorly
equipped, under-financed and the expertise of teaching staff is inadequate”. As
mentioned earlier, the rationalization of the technical vocational education and
training centres would ease these problems considerably.
10. It is also obvious from the substantial data collected that technical and vocation
education programs and the functions of FIT and TPAF in particular cannot be
improved in isolation. They need to be located in the “bigger picture” of education. It
is recommended that attempts must be made to bring TVET as an important
component of the total learning system and any form of ‘dualism’ or ‘streaming’ in
education must be stopped. The Fiji Island Education Commission Report 2000
developed this idea for primary and secondary education. This report suggests that
TVET must begin at class one level, as a life-skill training package. And as students
move up the education ladder they begin to discover their potential, specialize in the
skill of their interest and make it their vocation be it ‘self’ or ‘wage’ employment. It is,
therefore, recommended that we revisit our education system destroying any form of
‘dualism’ or ‘streaming’ and discrimination that exist between academic and
vocational education. Education should be geared to provide intellectual
development, vocational preparation and citizenship training. These purposes of
education operate in unison and not as separate entities. It is also stressed that
technical vocational education and training has the potential to provide ‘values
education’, work ethics, capacity building, person making and the like that are
under-subscribed in our education system. On the role of TVET in values
education, Quisumbing (2005: 300) emphasizes:
Quality TVET needs a teaching/learning approach that does not stop at
knowledge and information nor at developing skills and competence, but
proceeds to understanding and gaining insights that educates the heart and
the emotions and develops the ability to choose freely and to value, to
make decisions and to translate knowledge and values into action. Values


80

education is a necessary component of the holistic work education and
citizenship education”.

11. To a large extent, the present initiatives in technical and vocational education
concentrate on industrial-type employment and training for wage employment
leaving a vast section of the community unattended especially those in the primary
sector such as farming, fisheries and the like. It is suggested that FIT, TPAF and
other providers extend the horizon of their curricula a little further than just providing
knowledge and skills for employability in industrial type employment. Further, it is
recommended that they establish pathway-relations with primary and secondary
schools and their communities and assist them in their technical and vocational
education. The present FIT franchise program in secondary schools is
unsatisfactory and need attention especially as regards to the supply of resources
and teaching support. They must also provide professional staff development and
retraining programs to the school-based staff.
12. FIT, TPAF, MOE and other TVET providers must also meet the challenges posed by
the social, political and economic changes and the demands of global relativity.
Some important social changes are the increasing urban population and the
diminishing rural population and the substantial emigration of skilled labour including
educational professions. According to 2007 census 51 percent of the population now
lives in urban areas. The TVET providers as well as MOE pay little attention to the
urban poor especially the children and youths in the squatter settlements. FIT and
TPAF must initiate new initiatives in technical and vocational education to cater for
this large somewhat neglected section of the population.
13. The necessity to be competitive in the local and export markets, FIT and TPAF as
well as other providers especially the proposed technical and vocational centres
must expand and diversify their curricula. Their courses and programs must fully
exploit the potential presented by the service industry and this warrants more
flexibility and broader-based learning and skill preparation. These are fundamental
requirements of technical vocational education and training if it is to contribute
effectively to national development and the challenges of the global world.
Therefore, greater emphasis must be paid to TVET throughout the education
systems especially in the primary and secondary schooling and the community at
the grass-root level. TVET must become a priority in schools and their communities
together with its academic counterparts. The World Bank survey (2006: xii) identifies
several job categories where many young people of diverse social and economic
backgrounds may finds employment and these include farmer, teacher,
housekeeper/home-duties, shopkeeper/market vendor, carpenter,
fisherman/fisherwoman, security officer, nurse, mechanic, chainsaw operator and
timber miller. Similar categories are suggested for our primary and secondary
schools in the Fiji Islands Education Commission Report 2000 (see Chapter 9). It is
suggested that the proposed TVET centres include these employment categories in
their curricula based on the local needs.
14. It is stressed that curricula must be well oriented and up-to-date. As ADB survey
(2007) employers complain that the present curricula of FIT and the secondary
school-based TVET program are fairly theoretical and not practical. Thus, it is
difficult to say the extent to which planned competencies are achieved. For example,
office technology part of curriculum in the franchise program includes shorthand, a
skill that is hardly in demand in most business firms. The curriculum updating is
needed.
15. Furthermore, the most important criterion for successful implementation of TVET is
quality. The main purpose of their programs is to provide relevant knowledge, skills
and competencies for employability. Quality is a function of inputs, processes and
outputs (ADB survey, 2007: 57). According to this survey quality is determined by:
Existence of employer-ratified standards;
Clear and attainable objectives;
Adequately prepared students on entry;
Trained instructors;

81

Appropriate training content with definition of associated learning outcomes;
Availability of tools, equipment and supplies;
Assessment of performance against training objectives and standards using both
formative and summative techniques; and
Strong management of the training process.
16. It was pleasing to note that TPAF has prepared the first draft of TVET national
qualification framework (NQF). It is stressed that NQF has the potential to establish
standards and processes for quality control in FIT, and TPAF as well as register and
accredit other TVET providers. As articulated by ADB survey (2000) NQF
Motivates students to continue their education and training by establishing specific,
clear steps to upgrade their qualifications;
Leads to cost-effective training by focusing on outcomes;
Provides level playing field for tech-voc providers to complete for limited public
funds;
Stresses on the competencies acquired and not where the qualifications have
been received;
Can also promote equity by recognizing prior learning and skills acquisition from
any recognized tech-voc provider; and
Can also promote job mobility and hence increase labour market efficiency.
It is increasingly important, therefore, to formalise NQF for all TVET providers by making
such a provision in the respective Acts.
17. Leadership has been another area of concern in most TVET providers especially in
secondary schools. The heads and teachers or instructors of TVET institutions must
both be competent administrators and professionals. There is clearly a need for
training in TVET leadership both at pre-appointment and after-appointment levels. It
is important for those involved in TVET to build and share a common sense of vision
and expectations. The quality of teacher/instructors is a key to providing quality
TVET courses and programs. As mentioned earlier, this has been a concern. It is
important therefore to improve teacher/ instructor performance and this to some
extent can be done by strengthening programs for pre-service and in-service
training. Furthermore, there is a need to identify and monitor key performance areas
as part of teacher evaluation. It is also important to introduce merit-based selection
and compensation.
18. FIT and TPAF have their individual legislative Acts that make them semi-
autonomous and were placed under different ministries: the MOE and MOL
respectively. The MOE manages TVET directly in secondary schools and vocational
centres. The private providers do not have any proper monitoring procedures and
the MOE has very little control on them especially in regards to their curricula and
their implementation processes. They are, however, registered under the relevant
Education Act. Through its franchise program, FIT assists TVET in secondary
schools and enrols secondary school graduates in its pre-service courses. It was
found, however, that there is very little coordination between MOE and FIT. On the
other hand, TPAF largely operates on its own without much relationship with
secondary school-based TVET and it does not receive much support from MOE
especially in to regards to facilities and management. There is little if any direct
relationship between FIT and TPAF mainly in areas of planning, curriculum and
pedagogy. Thus there is duplication of facilities, courses and programs such as
hospitality, commerce, electrical and information technology. It is suggested that
there must be an overall national training authority for policy, coordination, quality
assurance and monitoring. As mentioned above, NQF would assist in solving this
problem considerably.
19. It is reiterated that the proposed establishment [if and when] of the Fiji National
University (FNU) would provide an overall administration and management structure
for policy-making, coordination, quality assurance and monitoring of TVET in the
country with particular reference to FIT, TPAF, primary and secondary schools and
other private providers. There is also a need for the Government to revisit the
Education Act and the policies and regulations that govern primary, secondary and

82

tertiary institutions including FIT and TPAF. The rationalization of these institutions
is necessary to improve coordination amongst various modes of education such as
academic, technical and vocational, and distance and flexible learning. It would
provide means for cost-effectiveness and internal efficiency, ensure quality, equity
access and promote management effectiveness and an education system that is the
key player in the national socio-economic and political development. It would also
place TVET in a broader perspective making it an important component of the total
learning system. If and when the proposed is established it should comprise four
colleges, namely, teacher education, agriculture, medicine, and TVET.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE
1.0. That TVET be regarded as the ‘master key’ of social, economic and political
development because it has the potential to transform the world of work and the economy,
alleviate poverty, save the environment, promote sustainable development and improve the
quality of living.
1.1
To promote this philosophy, the relevant sections of the Government and the
key stakeholders such as TVET providers need to develop appropriate
education and empowerment programs for policy makers, schools, parents
and other members of the school community. This readiness phase warrants
full commitment as well as resource-support.
1.2
While maintaining control over all the phases of education and training
process, the above mentioned advocates must establish the organizational
climate and culture in which the TVET learning process can develop with the
respect and vitality it deserves in the overall social, economic and political
development. TVET must gradually become the norm of the school system.
2.0
That a functional TVET structure be established and FIT, TPAF and other providers
be located in it. In other words, there must be an overall national TVET organizing
authority for policy, planning, management, implementation, assessment and
supervision. Figure 1 shows the suggested structure that comprises TVET Council,
National TVET Board and the key TVET providers. The membership composition
and functions of the Council and Board are also shown however these are to be
further developed by the policy makers in partnership with the key stakeholders. In
particular, the National Authority should also be responsible for activities such as
quality assurance, national qualification framework, accreditation, funding and staff
development. The proposed budget for restructuring of TVET is provided in
(Appendix 9.0).

3.0 That
a
5Higher Education Commission be established that assumes the
responsibility of drawing the tertiary education charter, acts and policies for different
sections of education including TVET. The Commission must review the existing
Education Act and present a more precise and concise tertiary education charter,
act, policy and regulations for more holistic and comprehensive education system.
The Commission should work in collaboration with the proposed National TVET
Council so that a more cohesive TVET program can be established beginning from
pre-school through to tertiary education.
4.0 That if and when the proposed Fiji National University is established, FIT, TPAF
and other providers be located in the College of TVET of the University. As
mentioned earlier, TVET will then be managed by the University and will receive
the respect it deserves.
5.0
That both FIT and TPAF discontinue their degree and post graduate programs and
these be taken from the University of the South Pacific and the University of Fiji.
When the Fiji National University is established then it could take these programs
as well. FIT and TPAF should continue to provide certificate and diploma programs

5 It is pleasing to note that a Higher Education Commission has already been established recently.

83

and arrangements should be made with USP and UOF for cross-crediting these
towards degree programs. It is also important to establish better collaborative
relationship among USP, UOF, FIT and TPAF. This would facilitate mobility of
students from one institution to another within the cross credit provisions of each
institution.
6.0
That the Government of Fiji provides subsidies to TVET institutions, however, they
should also generates additional funds through student fees, consultancy,
research, services and levies.
7.0
That FIT must concentrate on pre-service TVET courses and programs and TPAF
in-service as stipulated in their respective Acts.
7.1
That for cost-effectiveness and internal efficiency unnecessary duplication of
courses and programs be avoided. For example, pre-service hospitality,
commerce, electrical and information technology are offered by both
institutions. These must be identified under pre-service and in-service and
then offered by the respective institutions.
7.2
That TPAF must concentrate on short term courses, workshops and
seminars focusing on specific job skills needed by the various sections of the
economy. These education and training sessions ought to focus on job
training, job improvement with particular reference to emerging innovations
and technologies, on-the-job training and job creation stressing on themes
such capacity building, constructivism, sustainability, work ethics and
research.
8.0 That the Acts of FIT and TPAF be revisited and a more precise and concise policies
and regulations be developed in consultation with the relevant stakeholders
especially the industry. These must be consistent with the Education Act so that there
is a ‘fine line’ of linkage among the different components of the total learning system
of an individual, that is, from pre-school, primary and secondary through to tertiary
education and employment.
9.0 That TPAF and FIT courses and programs must address the demands of the
country’s skill training requirements however they must also be proactive to enable
employees to cope with the changing work environment. They must address the
needs for ‘wage’ as well as ‘self’ employment. It is important to stress that the target
audiences of TVET programs range from children to adults and workers from the
primary, secondary to tertiary sectors of the economy.
10.0 That the present FIT franchise program in secondary schools be upgraded especially
in regards to the supply of resources and teaching support. It must also provide
professional staff development and retraining programs to the school-based and
centre-based staff.
11.0 That TVET centres be established in selected urban and rural areas and on islands
11.1 .That the courses in these centres are to be coordinated collaboratively by
FIT and TPAF performing their respective pre-service and in-service
functions
11.2 .That these centres be responsible for TVET programs in primary and
secondary schools in their respective areas.
11.3 That these centres must include the following work categories in their
curriculum - farmer, teacher, housekeeper/domestic duties,
shopkeeper/market vendor, carpenter, fishermen/fisherwomen, security
officer, nurse, mechanic, chainsaw operator and timber miller.
12.0 That the National TVET Board appoints an independent committee to establish and
manage the National Qualification Framework (NQF) that has bench-marks for
academic standards and quality for all TVET courses and programs. However, the
respective institutions are to set their own assessment and evaluation procedures
within the guidelines provided in the NQF. It is also recommended that in the initial
stages NQF be housed, financed and managed by TPAF. The proposed budget for

84

the establishment, implementation and institutionalisation of NQF is provided in
Appendix 9.0.
13.0 That FIT and TPAF pay greater attention to the rural, island and informal sectors so
that people benefit from TVET initiatives.
14.0 That FIT and TPAF organise empowerment programs including workshops for
relevant stakeholders to address issues of relevance and readiness. It is also
important to prepare female coordinators together with their male counterparts.
15.0 That owing to the considerable mismatch between knowledge and skills acquired and
those available in the labour market both FIT and TPAF must institute research
studies to obtain correct information for future planning process. There is a need for
on-going research in these institutions.
16.0 That the education system be revisited and any form dualism or streaming and
discrimination that exist between academic and vocational education and training be
eliminated.
17.0 That TVET institutions as well as MOE pay greater attention to the urban poor
especially the children and youths in the squatter settlements. FIT and TPAF must
initiate new initiatives in TVET to cater for these somewhat neglected section of the
population.
18.0 That TVET program heads and teachers or instructors must both be competent
administrators and professionals. There is clearly a need for training in TVET
leadership both at pre-appointment and after-appointment levels. Both FIT and
TPAF must provide programs for pre-service and in-service training for the members
of their staff. Furthermore, there is a need to identify and monitor key performance
areas as part of teacher evaluation. It is also important to introduce merit-based
selection and compensation.
19.0 That a genuine relationship be established amongst FIT, TPAF and other TVET
providers mainly in areas of planning, curriculum and pedagogy. With team play, they
would be able to avoid unnecessary duplication of facilities, courses and programs
and provide a more realistic vocational education and training to the diverse TVET
clients. It is expected that the proposed National Coordinating Authority would
facilitate this relationship.


Concluding remarks
Fiji’s technical vocational education and training programs are still trapped in an educational,
social and economical framework of inequality. This is consistent with the majority of technical
and vocational education initiatives in other developing countries. It is stressed that as long as
academic education credentials predominate as the most important prerequisite for the job
market, TVET has little chance of making any significant impression on educational
development. Given the present economic and political benefits and privileges accrued
through academic qualifications, TVET may continue to exist as the ‘second best option’
rather than a significant portion of the life-long learning process. This view impedes the
successful implementation of TVET programs including those at FIT and TPAF.
In the recent years, however, this perception has been contested. This is mainly because our
education system is not comprehensive enough to provide students with opportunities to
obtain the competencies for life-skills, semi-job skills and multi-job skills as well as work ethics
needed in the dynamically complex and technologically-based vocations. Many of these
competencies are important to promote sustainable development, life-long learning and
training, education for all, knowledge society and citizenship. Therefore, TVET must become
an equally important component of our pre-school, primary, secondary and tertiary education
as the Fiji Islands Education Commission 2000 suggests. Such preparation from an early
stage would undoubtedly improve the overall functioning of FIT, TPAF and other TVET
providers.

85

There is sufficient evidence to show that the relationship and collaboration amongst the
various providers of TVET is minimal. Hence, there is duplication of facilities, equipment,
resources, courses and programs resulting into unnecessary waste of limited resources
available. It is reinforced that FIT should concentrate mainly on pre-service programs and
TPAF on in-service and this can be facilitated well if there is only one overall national
coordinating authority for policy, coordination, quality assurance and monitoring. It was felt
that the proposed National Coordinating Authority would be able to fulfil this need by
providing an overall leadership and management structure. Such structural framework is
essential to improve coordination amongst various modes of education such as academic,
technical and vocational, and distance and flexible learning. It will also provide cost-
effectiveness and internal efficiency, ensure quality, equity and access and promote
management effectiveness.
Whatever policy and practice changes are adopted for TVET, the following comments seem
pertinent because TVET institutions, like others, cannot be operated in isolation:

Recognising that the vast majority of the worldwide labour force, including knowledge
workers, require technical and vocational skills throughout life, we affirm that skills
development leading to age-appropriate TVET should be integral to education at all
levels, and can no longer be regarded as optional or marginal. It is especially important
to integrate skills development in Education for All (EFA) programmes and to satisfy
TVET demand created by learners completing basis education (UNEVOC, in Prospects
vol. 3, September, 2005: 266).








86

References

Asian Development Bank (n.d.) Key indicators of developing Asian and Pacific countries
(n.d.) retrieved from http://www.adb.org/statistics/regional tables on 21/09/2006,
Asian Development Bank. (2006) Country Strategy and Program Update Fiji Islands (2006–
2008),
Asian Development Bank. (2006) Skills Gap In the Pacific, Fiji Islands Case Studies (2006–
2008), Prepared by: Paul Brady, Alex Gorham, Richard Johanson and Eci Naisele, Suva, FIJI
Australian Agency for International Development (2006). Pacific 2020. Challenges and
opportunities for growth.
Canberra, Australia: AusAID
Centre for Workplace Learning, 1995. Workplace learning for schools: how to do it. Centre
for Workplace Learning, Sydney.
Crossley, M. 1989. Concern for community-based education: the SSCEP experience and the
development of the curriculum development office, a presented in the community-based
education seminar, Port Moresby In-Service College, Waigani, 3-7 July 1989.
Crossley, M. and Vulliamy, G., 1986. The policy of SSCEP: context and development. ERU
Report,
University of Papua New Guinea, Waigani.
Crossley, M., 1990. Collaborative research, ethnography and comparative and international
education in the South Pacific, International Journal of Educational Development, 10 (1), pp.
37-46.
Deb, A. (2001) Asian Cases on Supply Chain Management for SMEs: Fiji Country Paper,
Asian Productivity Organization, Tokyo
Fiji Council of Social Services (2004) Annual Report
Fiji Economic Review, (2006) Reserve Bank of Fiji, Suva
Fiji Education Commission, 1969. Education for modern Fiji: Report of the 1969 Education
Commission.
Fiji Government, Suva.
Fiji Institute of Technology 2006) Statement of revenue and expenditure for the month of
December 2005.
Unpublished (accessed 14th August 2006)
Fiji Institute of Technology, 2000, July. A comparative analysis of the Government funding
information.
Unpublished raw data.
Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics (2006), Key Statistics June 2006, Suva, Fiji: Bureau of
Statistics
Fiji Islands Education Commission/ Panel, 2000. Learning together: directions for education
in the Fiji Islands: Report of the Fiji Islands Education Commission/Panel.
Fiji Government,
Suva.
Foster, P. J., 1987. Technical/vocational education in the less developed countries,
International Journal of Educational Development (7), pp. 137-39.

87

Fullan, M., 1991. New meaning of educational change. Cassell, London.
Government of Fiji (2002) Ministry of Education Annual Report 2004. Parliamentary Paper
no. 95 of 2005.
(2005). Suva, Fiji: Ministry of Education
Government of Fiji. (2002) Strategic Development Plan: 2003 – 2005, Parliamentary Paper
72, Suva
Hoyle, E., 1986). The politics of school management (London, Hodder and Stoughton).
International Labor Organization. (1998) Integrated Human Resource Development
Programme for Employment Promotion, Executive Summary, Suva
International Labour Organization. (2005) Integrated Human Resource Development
Programme for Employment Promotion, Progress Report, Suva
International Labour organization (2005) Report of a Workshop on Skills for Productivity and
Economic Empowerment in the Pacific, Nadi,
Lauglo, J. & Lillis, K. (Ed.), 1988. Vocationalising education: an international perspectives.
Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Ministry of Education (2005) Advanced Vocational Training (AVT), Annual Progress Report,
Suva
Ministry of Education annual report 2004 (2005) by Ministry of Education. Suva, Fiji: MOE,
Ministry of Finance and National Planning (2005). Economic and fiscal update. Supplement to
the 2006 budget address.
Suva, Fiji: MOFNP
Ministry of Finance and National Planning (2006). Strategic Development Plan 2007-2011
Draft.
Suva, Fiji, MOFNP
Ministry of Youth, Employment Opportunities and Sports, (2004) Annual Report
Mohanty, M (2005) Globalisation, New Labour Migration and Development in Fiji Islands.
Paper presented at State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Project Conference on
Globalisation, Governance and the Pacific Islands, October 25-27, 2005 ANU, Canberra.
Naisele, E. (2006). Regional study on skills development in the Pacific-Fiji study. Report in
progress
;
National Planning Office (2004), Strategic development plan 2003-2005. Mid-term review.
Suva, Fiji :National Planning Office
National Planning Office (2006), Fiji computerised human resource information system
retrieved 9/08/2006 on www.fijichris.gov.fj
Prasad N. and S. Raj (2006) The Potential of Small-Scale Informal Sector Businesses in Small
Developing Countries: Fiji’s Kava Industry. Malta
Reserve Bank of Fiji (2006). Quarterly Review March 2006. Suva: Reserve Bank
Sharma, A., 1989. Multicraft in Fijian secondary schools: an evaluative study of a nonformal
education programme,
Unpublished master’s thesis. Australia, University of New England.
Sharma, A., 1999a. Vocational education and training in Fiji: management at the secondary

88

school level. Anamika Publishers, New Delhi.
Sharma, A., 1999b, October. Micro-politics in the management of schools: A Fiji experience.
Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, X111 (4), pp. 431-442.
Sharma, A., 2000. Technical and vocational education and training. In Fiji Islands Education
Commission/ Panel, 2000. Learning together: directions for education in the Fiji Islands:
Report of the Fiji Islands Education Commission/Panel,
pp. 132-148. Fiji Government, Suva.
Tavola, H., 1991. Secondary education in Fiji: A key to the future. The Institute of Education,
The University of the South Pacific, Suva.
Tewei, T. B., 1985. The community high school project in Kiribati: an examination of its rise
and fall,
M. Phil. Unpublished dissertation, University of Birmingham.
Thaman, K., 1989 (Ed.). New secondary schools in Solomon Islands, ED255: Introduction to
Curriculum Development-Readings.
Extensions Services, the University of the South Pacific,
Suva.
TPAF (2006). Budget for automotive programs. Unpublished data.
UNESCO, 1996. Learning the treasure within: Report to UNESCO of the International
Commission on Education for the twenty-first century.
UNESCO Publishers, France.
UNESCO, 1999. Technical and vocational education and training: a vision for twenty-first
century.
UNESCO, (Paris.
Veramo, J. The Contribution of Non Formal Education to Vocational Development, Dept. Of
Education and Psychology, University of the South Pacific, Suva 2000
Waqabaca, J.K. (2004) Non-Farm Employment Opportunities in Rural Areas in Asia: Fiji
Country Paper, Asian Productivity Organization, Tokyo
Warner, M. (2000) Conflict Management in Community-based Natural Resource Projects:
Experiences from Fiji and Papua New Guinea, Overseas Development Institute, London
Watson, K., 1994. Technical and vocational education in developing countries: western
paradigms and comparative methodology. Comparative Education, 30 (2), pp. 85-97.
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
World Bank, 1991. Vocational education and training: A World Bank Policy Paper. World
Bank, Washington.

Centre for Workplace Learning, 1995. Workplace learning for schools: how to do it. Centre
for Workplace Learning, Sydney.
Crossley, M., 1990. Collaborative research, ethnography and comparative and international
education in the South Pacific, International Journal of Educational Development,
10 (1), pp. 37-46.
Fiji Education Commission, 1969. Education for modern Fiji: Report of the 1969 Education
Commission. Fiji Government, Suva.
Fiji Institute of Technology, 2000, July. A comparative analysis of the Government
funding information.
Unpublished raw data.
Fiji Islands Education Commission/ Panel, 2000. Learning together: directions for education
in the Fiji Islands: Report of the Fiji Islands Education Commission/Panel. Fiji

89

Government, Suva.
Fullan, M., 1991. New meaning of educational change. Cassell, London.
Hoyle, E., 1986). The politics of school management (London, Hodder and Stoughton).
Lauglo, J. & Lillis, K. (Ed.), 1988. Vocationalising education: an international perspectives.
Pergamon Press, Oxford.
OTHER REFERENCES
Sharma, A. & Naisele, E. (2008). TVET: The Master Key: The Review of the Functions of
the Functions of FIT, TPAF and other TVET Providers. Suva: Ministry of
Education.
Sharma, A., 1989. Multicraft in Fijian secondary schools: an evaluative study of a
nonformal education programme, Unpublished master’s thesis. Australia, University
of New England.
Sharma, A., 1999a. Vocational education and training in Fiji: management at the secondary
school level. Anamika Publishers, New Delhi.
Sharma, A., 1999b, October. Micro-politics in the management of schools: A Fiji experience.
Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, X111 (4), pp. 431-442.
Sharma, A., 2000. Technical and vocational education and training. In Fiji Islands Education
Commission/ Panel, 2000. Learning together: directions for education in the Fiji
Islands: Report of the Fiji Islands Education Commission/Panel,
pp. 132-148. Fiji
Government, Suva.
Tavola, H., 1991. Secondary education in Fiji: A key to the future. The Institute of
Education, The University of the South Pacific, Suva.
Tewei, T. B., 1985. The community high school project in Kiribati: an examination of its
rise and fall, M. Phil. Unpublished dissertation, University of Birmingham.
Thaman, K., 1989 (Ed.). New secondary schools in Solomon Islands, ED255: Introduction to
Curriculum Development-Readings. Extensions Services, the University of the South
Pacific, Suva.
UNESCO, 1999. Technical and vocational education and training: a vision for twenty-first
century. UNESCO, (Paris).
UNESCO, 2005. Prospects – Orientating TVET for Sustainable Development. Vol.
VXXXV, No. 3, September 2005.
UNESCO, 1996. Learning the treasure within: Report to UNESCO of the International
Commission on Education for the twenty-first century. UNESCO Publishers, France.
World Bank, 1991. Vocational education and training: A World Bank Policy Paper. World
Bank, Washington.



APPENDIX 1.0 LIST OF PERSONS MET AND PLACES VISITED
Fiji Institute of Technology
Ganesh Prasad, Director FIT,
Josua Mataika, Deputy Director FIT& Heads of schools

Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics
Epeli Waqavonovono, Chief Statistician (Household Surveys)


90

Fiji Chamber of Commerce
Willie Kwansing, General Secretary

Fiji Education Sector Program (AusAID)
Donald de Klerk, Vocational Adviser

Fiji Employers’ Association
Annie Wade; Hideaway Resort

Fiji Hotel Association
Dixon Seeto, President

Fiji Motor Traders Association

Mr Ian Mac Lean & Sanjeet Kumar (Asco Motors)

Fiji Manufactures Association
Mark Halabe

Fletcher Construction
Peter Watts, Manager, Fiji

Ministry of Education TVET Section
Josefa Natau
- Director
Salote Dugu
- PAO
Soko Nakabuniceva
- SEO
Tomasi Naborisi
- SEO
Ro Alumeci Tuisawau - SEO
Repeka Uluilakeba
- SEO
Orisi Seruitanoa
- SEO

Training and Productivity Authority of Fiji
Jone Usamate, Director
TPAF Board &
Senior Management Staff

University of the South Pacific
Staff of Technology Department

Industries Visited
Asco Motors- Suva
Fea- Labasa
FSC- Labasa
PWD- Labasa
Telecom- Labasa
Grand Eastern Hotel- Labasa

Source: Review team data base, 2007



91


Appendix 2.0 Schools Visited:

Date of
School/Institution
Contact
Position
Visit
Mr Mahen Pal
Principal
Rishikul Sanatan College
Mr Pradeep
11/10/07
Mr Dakai
HOD
Malakai Cakau
Sila Central High School
Eta Toga
Tagicakibau
Principal 11/10/07

Baikeitoga & Ledua
Qatia Brown

Timothy Pratap
HODs
11/10/07
RKS
Semesa Biudole
teachers
Manasa Taraki

Labasa College, Naleba
7/10/07
College, All Saints

Secondary, Holy Family

Principals Labasa Secondary
Sec, Labasa Arya

College, Labasa Muslim
Principals
School
College, Gurunanak

Secondary School,

Valebasoga Secondary,

Labasa Sangan College
8/10/07
Ratu Navula Secondary
Sera Saladuadua
A/Principal
Jovilisi, Bhadur,
10/11/07
School
Josua Qalo
teachers
Satish Kumar
Principal
Nawaicoba Vocational Centre Pradeep
10/11/07
Shalendra Prasad
Teacher
Dr Satendra Nadan
University of Fiji
Filipe Bole
Lecturers 10/11/07
Dr Kumar

Source: Review team data base, 2007














92

Appendix 3.0 Correspondence:




Educating the Child Holistically for a

Peaceful and Prosperous Fiji



Marela House, 19 Thurston Street, Suva Fiji Islands Ph: (679) 3314477 Fax: (679) 3303511
Private Mail Bag, Government Building

Our
Reference:
Your
Reference:
Date:

…………………………………
………………………………..
………………………………..
REVIEW OF FIT AND TPAF FUNCTIONS

The Fiji Institute of Technology (FIT) and the Training and Productivity Authority of Fiji (TPAF)
are the two main institutions tasked with training the skilled manpower as required by industries in
Fiji. The FIT originally was managed by the Ministry of Education but has become autonomous with
its own Act. TPAF similarly operates under its own Act.

The shortage of skilled manpower experienced by industries lately in Fiji has led to questions being
raised of the roles of FIT and TPAF. Both Institutions have grown and expanded in terms of
programmes, which has also raised the fees charged on students and questions are being raised on
how they are meeting their core functions.

Due to the above, the Minister for Education as the custodian of education in the country has directed
that there be a review of the two institutions. The review is to compare the programmes they are
offering and see if there are overlaps and duplications. Their Acts need also be studied to ensure that
they have distinct responsibilities assigned to them through their legislations. The most important
intended outcome of the review is to ensure that the two institutions are meeting their core functions
and ensuring that they continue to produce the required skilled manpower on the nation that matches
the needs of industries. In conjunction with this work, there is also a need for a scoping study to look
at in totality the links from schools, FIT, TPAF and USP.

In view of the above, a questionnaire is hereby attached seeking your viewpoint on the above topic.

Your input will be treated confidential and will be used only for the purpose of FIT/TPAF review.

Thank you for your time and contributions

Yours sincerely,

E.Naisele
For Permanent Secretary for Education

Ps: There will be combined meeting at USP Labasa Campus on Friday 21st September, from 9.00am
to 11am to further discuss this issue. Your presence is highly appreciated.







Source: Review team data base, 2007



93

Appendix 4.0: Interviews

FIT/TPAF REVIEW
(TPAF Reflections-with Annie Wade; Hideaway Resort
7th November, 2007 @3.00pm

Too much duplication of the same Programme- in the basics- house keeping, front
office, cooks,
FIT –to do more of a higher level
TPAF concentrate on basic skill level
USP to do degree in Hotel Management
o Need a business management degree
o USP is not practical y doing what the hotel industry wants in tourism and
hospitality
TPAF course is too expensive to do the in-house training
To hard to get TPAF instructors to conduct in house training
TAPF very proactive in coming to industries and enquiring what do they need for up
skilling
E need to encourage trades from lower level
Concentrate on lower semi skilled trades
We need get back the Apprenticeship scheme
We have lost a lot Cooks and most have moved overseas especially Canada
Activities and entertainment is essentially important but there is no formal training for
the workers
FIT and TPAF trainees are very much the same when they come in for industries
attachment but they conduct up-skilling in house training to raise the standard of skill
level of the workers
We encourage our staff to progress towards higher and middle level management
Activities and Entertainment department programmes like Child Care, First care,
History of Fiji, Basic Maintenance of Equipment, Marine Studies-boat Masters,
snorkelling guide, sea safety, Horticulture, Dancing, music & traditional music, - We do
not need degree holder in these areas but they need some kind of certification



Source: Review team data base, 2007

FIT/TPAF
REVIEW
General Questions- ASCO MOTORS
Mr Ian Mac Lean & Sanjeet Kumar ( Fiji Motor Traders Association)


What do Industries expect form FIT and TPAF
a. Trades skills have a reputations problems everywhere in the world ; In
particular, skill Trades and management training
i. Classified as a blue collar profession and therefore not a very popular
choice for job seekers
b. Quality of output from FIT- apprenticeship very good but need be more
practical approach
c. ASCO supplement in house-training. Have an international standard training
room
d. Carpenter have similar arrangement on further in-house training after
FIT/TPAF
e. ASCO Create world class tradesmen in the world. That is after FIT and more
in-house training ad overseas attachment
f. FIT/TPAF are OK but their equipment are 5 years behind

94

g. Apprentices are done at TPAF and theory at FIT. Apprentice just recently been
reintroduced by government. Very important exercise to perfecting trade skills
h. Happy with what they are teaching at FIT but to have more emphasis on
practical and attachment.
i. Most industries have no apprentices
j. CBT to replace apprenticeship in years to come
i. It takes years to train an apprenticeship
ii. CBT will fast track with competent test with less than 5 years to
complete training
k. ASCO do take on vocational students on attachment only
l. Sometime ASCO have to repeat training on in -house
m. Need Financial Management Training etc
n. Sometimes TPAF Training are irrelevant and some of its instructors do not
have relevant industry experience but use the internet to get information on the
topics required

View on Agriculture Sector

o Agriculture sector needs review and maybe a restructure. It is not doing what
it is suppose to be doing
o Fiji with its huge land resources has very little return from the land produce
for economic return
o Agriculture Experience-
Agriculture workers at Lakena (Nausori) and Navua: Most of the
machines/tractors are in pieces;
Where there are machine conducted or not is another question
there are workers pretending to be working but there is nothing
really to do since the are no machines etc, in good working condition
These workers are paid by government but sitting idle having grog all
day long.
o Suggestions-FIT/TPAF to set a review team to inspect their equipment and
maybe program delivery and make recommendation based on the industry
demand
o Number of equipment- less in one class ratio. FIT have unequal distribution
in ratio of equipment in the lab and students using the equipment/machine. It
is a one to many arrangement where TPAF has good ratio distribution with
less number of students using the machine (One to one basis)
o TPAF –They should be plan of action on how should they manage the grant
scheme better for the purpose of industry and skilling the people of Fiji
o TPAF: To have Recognised Wed Based Training
o There is opportunity for better management training
o Satisfied with productivity at technician level
o ASCO sent its workers overseas for further international training

Source: Review team data base, 2007








95

FIT/TPAF REVIEW
(FIT Reflections-with Acting Director)
17th September, 2007 @10.am

FIT
Act
a. to answer questions on TOR for FIT

What would you see as the main purpose of FIT?- Social, economic, political
a. 1992 ACT- basic requirement for TVET training to post secondary school students-
forms 5,6,7 –
b. Pre-service but also in-service –PRIMARY PURPOSE:
c. Social Applications- Train them so that they can fit in society
d. Co-corporate plan was set based on the primary purpose
e. Fees are approves by parliament- Diploma, Certificates & trade Certificate
programs


f. Are you offering Academic course? like accounting
i. Business Studies

g. Any Duplications taking place between FIT and TPAF? How can they be avoided
i. Yes, TPAF trained specialist but not FIT. That’s why

h. What is FIT link to USP?
i. There is an Agreement /MOU between FIT and USP
ii. To use resources better

i. Is there any chance that FIT and TPAF under one institution?
i. Use to be merge at one time, but that is no longer now. They are operating
under different Acts


j. Your views of FIT turning into University?
i. It’s a good plan for long term benefit

k. What have you to say about Franchise programmes in Secondary Schools:
i. Started in 1980s with the idea of taking the courses into the remote/rural
locations, society
ii. Began offering franchise into the door step of the student, as long as the
centres are meeting the FIT requirement and standard
iii. Concentrated initially in the larger Suva area

l. What kind of support do you give to franchised centres?
i. Syllabus and exam papers only
ii. Teachers in secondary schools are not fully qualified to teach FIT franchised
programmes

m. The relationship between FIT and the job/labour market?
i. Industry advisory committee- Industry sit in curriculum committee for
recommendations and input
ii. FIT cannot satisfy every industry need




Source: Review team data base, 2007

96

FIT/TPAF REVIEW
General Questions- Ministry of Health
1. What would you like TPAF and FIT to do?

They are looking at higher level education and not the lower level. Lower level for
the vocational schools
High unemployment in the country is a big issue
Need to know basic skills to treat a person like personal greetings and welcome,
general y good attitude etc
FIT /TPAF to target semi skilled profession rather than a higher level skills
Mismatch of skills from supply and demand-For example Ministry of Health been
receiving FIT graduates applying to do office jobs with trade certificate in Plumbing.
FIT to conduct project planning, simple management, simple financing to acquire
basic jobs
Mrs Matavewa (as a parent) FIT –Schools realigning into FIT. Trade school must
remain
FIT must go back to do the core skills trade courses like maritime studies
She is a firm believer in TVET
Vocational to begin at class 5 and not at form 3 level
Example- a child from champagnant, to Monfort Boys Town with virtually not skil s at
all came out of Monfort as a competent skilled trademan
We need a lot of advocacy for parents; NGO’s can be used to advocate TVET to
parents and students
Empower the women to advocate TVET at lower level
“If we have more trade centres like champanant school then Fiji wil have no socio
economic problems”- Mrs Matavewa
TPAF to give back to the employer what is due for them
TPAF- need based training- CBT
Vocational schools must continue to exist because of trade skills needed for the
industries

Health basic skil s
i. Relationship
ii. Health promotion for primary Health care
iii. How to deal environment. People to be taught to make a compost, rather
burning rubbish
iv. Wash hands before eating
v.

Sharma:
School to prepare a platform where student can discover their potential
vocational education is expensive
Don’t need a PHD in plumbing
Sila’s story of solving a problems of students roaming the streets of Nausori after the intake
for RKS, ACS, QVS

Source: Review team data base, 2007



97

FIT/TPAF REVIEW
General Questions- Ministry of National Planning
1. Joe Sania- Director

2. Introduction
a. Review of FIT/TPAF Act
b. Whether TPAF/FIT are doing what they initially tasks to do
c. Vocational Education is expensive
d. How relevant is Vocational Education to the industries
e. Education Commission Report- There is a mismatch form supply and Demand
f. Broad Based education was suggested from Primary , Secondary to Tertiary
g. Education in 3 phases- Intellectual development; vocational and Citizenship or
Value education
h. TPAF and FIT should be charted what they are suppose to do
i.
3. Reflections from National Planning
a. human resource development for the country
b. Siwatibau Report- Right Policy in Training the right area needed from the
industry
c. Unemployment is a challenge to government
d. 14,000 from 6 level- 4,000 into form 7
e. 300 places at USP
f. 8,000 just floating about
g. FIT is to prepare trade people; They have shifted in their agenda
h. TPAF is to look at initial role in training apprenticeship
i. FIT-

i. fea - FIT courses is irrelevant
ii. Introduce course without proper resources
iii.
j. Huge migration of skills into overseas market as from November to October
approx. 800
k. How the employers will react if there is a merge for FIT and TPAF
l. have to address duplication then thee is need to merge
m. The only for merging the 2 centres is whether they will continue to provide the
same service in training as what they are doing now
n. Someone to regulate the types of skill training for the country

Source: Review team data base, 2007


98

FIT/TPAF REVIEW
General Questions -RKS
Introduction
o RKS will be a mini FIT as in the current proposal
o Need standard facilities ad equipment/special rooms etc to enable recognition
o RKS being a government school should have all necessary equipment/infrastructure
o


1. What would you like TPAF and FIT to do?
Want FIT to support in Finance to purchase timber
School fee is still high and students are finding hard to cope wit the fees
Teaching material given is not in full pack
Practical
materials
There is no refresher course for the teachers for both FIT and TPAF
No support for the agriculture programme at RKS
Mini centre to upgrade the teaching status of all teachers to tertiary level

Course priority
Agriculture
600 acres land idle
Need to prioritise on agriculture since they have all the necessary ingredients
Need to have Catering and cooks, plumbing,
Need to have Marine Studies and Fisheries


University of Technology
FIT pre-service and TPAF is in-service
Fiji too small to have 3 universities

Education Commission Report
Dualism wil kil vocational
Both Academic and Vocational should not be allowed to operate together
We have made vocational education academic which unfortunately will not serve the full
purpose of Vocational


NQF
Standardising the certification and accreditation of all training providers
This will set the bench mark for the new standardising system in Fiji

Demarcation of status on vocational and Academic
Very much alive at RKS
Students are set back to do vocational due the unattractiveness of the programme in school

FIT to give commission for teaching their lesson
Standard and quality is a question on the production line at RKS

TPAF: running short courses ½ weeks (fresh graduates) and give them certificate and then to the
work place. They are for in-service training

Source: Review team data base, 2007



99

FIT/TPAF REVIEW
General Questions- Rishikul Sanatan College

What does FIT provide for you?
Franchise subjects AE/CJ
Issues
o high fees of $150.00 is a concern
o FIT only provides, question paper, examination paper
Franchise- foundation to move on
Alternative:

They must have platform to move on to the next level and FIT trade certificate is a goog
start off benchmark
Vocational is expensive than formal education
School at lower level to be able to help the students to discover teir potential
Modular approach for the school
o Programme to be Short term basis with spiral approach
o The taje some vocational courses when they rech form 5,6 7
Concern
Ministry of not giving any accreditation for the students doing vocational programme
Terms of Reference have highlighted the main issues between FIT and TPAF
Greater emphasis on wage employment with little emphasis on self employment
Problem in Fiji-Agriculture
o Land
Tenure
o Bulk of the student want an accreditation that will take to level they are employable
opportunities
o Very little opportunity for self employment in the Suva Corridor
o Money id important what the means ot reach there is not really available
o Labour specification is common around the world
o Pathway in academic or TVET is not
o Fiji’s economic environment is not a free economy to generate employment
opportunity
o Having Multiple programmes in schools; panel beating, electrical wiring, plumbing,
o Programme to be intensive in schools
o Curriculum needs review and rewrite do that it is more focussed to a particular skill
TPAF
o Higher all Rishikul facilities
o
o
o
FIT does not closely monitor thir franchise prgramme
Deg


Source: Review team data base, 2007


100

FIT/TPAF REVIEW
(TPAF Reflections-with Director General)
11th September, 2007 @10.am



TPAF

Strategy
Plan
a. One area is values- social values
b. Mission, vision & Values are decided by the Board
c. Purely industry focus- Customer focus, team work
d. Customer- is mostly important

1. What do think of the labour market? Strength and weakness
a. Try to keep the link as strong as possible
b. Have Industry development committee for trades
c. Feedback on their development
d. Have training surveys- What the industry needs? What do they have?
e. Join effort with Fiji Employers Federation, Fiji chamber of Commerce
f. Feedback- retreat to discuss plans, related marketing, budget
1. beginning of the year get all information
2. Conduct
swot Analysis

What the role of the government in TPAF?
o We are an instrument of the government policy
Board
membership
o National Interest is at stake
What if you are given the opportunity to instil change at TPAF? What would you propose?
o For People who know the role of TPAF & TVET and notion of Skill need for the
country’s development
o To be familiar with the productivity exercise, etc

How would you like the attitude of Private sectors towards TPAF?
o If their input are more focus

How about the Pre-service- Secondary, Primary education? What your view?
o They need to have the basics, have Alternative Pathways & not an academic only
as an option in the school system

What is TPAF view in Gender issues?
o No strict rules; all are welcome in whatever courses they want to pursue
o Perception of education and TVET in Fiji is such that: eg, constructions for boys
and catering/Tailoring for girls

Standards
o TPAF is ISO-900 Certified
o TPAF have Quality Circles, Internal Quality Teams for in – house certification
o Structured
for
purpose



Outcome based- Indigenous education
o How does a skill match?
o Measurement is done by the eyes?-these are indigenous approach

Source: Review team data base, 2007


101

FIT/TPAF REVIEW
(TPAF Reflections-with Senior Staff & Director General)
31st October, 2007 @10.am

TPAF
Overview
Appreciation for the report detail submitted
Two
issues
o TPAF FIT Review of Act and core functions
o University of Science Technology
Whether Fiji is ready for another University
Other case from other Pacific Island in Samoa, Tonga, Solomon

Strategy
Plan
a. One area is values- social values
b. Mission, vision & Values are decided by the Board
c. Purely industry focus- Customer focus, team work
d. Customer- is mostly important

1. What do think of the labour market? Strength and weakness
a. Try to keep the link as strong as possible
b. Have Industry development committee for trades
c. Feedback on their development
d. Have training surveys- What the industry needs? What do they have?
e. Join effort with Fiji Employers Federation, Fiji chamber of Commerce
f. Feedback- retreat to discuss plans, related marketing, budget
1. beginning of the year get all information
2. Conduct swot Analysis

What the role of the government in TPAF?
o We are an instrument of the government policy

Board
membership
o National Interest is at stake

What if you are given the opportunity to instil change at TPAF? What would you propose?
o For People who know the role of TPAF & TVET and notion of Skill need for the
country’s development
o To be familiar with the productivity exercise, etc

How would you like the attitude of Private sectors towards TPAF?
o If their input are more focus

How about the Pre-service- Secondary, Primary education? What your view?
o They need to have the basics, have Alternative Pathways & not an academic path
only as an option in the school system

What is TPAF view in Gender issues?
o No strict rules; all are welcome in whatever courses they want to pursue
o Perception of education and TVET in Fiji is such that: eg, constructions for boys
and catering/Tailoring for girls

Standards
o TPAF is ISO-900 Certified
o TPAF have Quality Circles, Internal Quality Teams for in – house certification
o Structured for purpose
Source: Review team data base, 2007


102

FIT/TPAF REVIEW
(University of Fiji)
7th November, 2007 @10.am


Present: Dr Satendra Nadan, Mr Filipe Bole, Dr Kumar

Welcome - Mr Filipe Bole on behalf of the University

Introduction- Akhila Sharma
Taskforce 16 people too cumbersome
The team is doing the research on behalf of the taskforce and submit the report to the
taskforce and Minister later on
Have conducted a number study on industries including FIT and TPAF
Have travel mainly in Suva and Labasa
Franchise is not working well in franchise schools because there are no resources
Why not having mechanising agriculture in vocational schools???

TOR
What are the acts and core functions
Whare are the duplications
The proposed plan for the upgrading of FIT to University of Science and Technology

Issues
What do you think of FIT and TPAF

TPAF
o TPAF has lost its way
o Should do what have to do and a lot commercial activity
o Ask the business sector where they are getting their money(levy) worth

FIT
o Has to keep up within the technology. Most equipment are out dated
o Graduated are not competent in the work force. To review delivery and training
o It May be a good idea to amalgamate the two institutions
o Is there a manpower plan, skills plan in Fiji? Where and when do they need to train?
o Is it hard to mix two levels of programmes in one location-like a technical centre and
a university?
o Duplications of courses /programmes are definitely taking place between most
schools and need to be closely monitored- FIT/TOAF/USP/FAM/FSN/ ETC. Need to
pull all resources together. There is huge wastage of resources for a small country
like Fiji
o The opportunity of school committee is great because it has the opportunity for
expansion
o Whenever government comes in there is always an issues of not properly supervise
and monitors
o What is the success of education in Fiji- Primary schools, Secondary? It’s the
church and private schools that have quality facilities and back-up systems
o Modern economy- Huge demand of taxation. The only way to earn money is
through tax.
o We need to get in the private sector in all enterprises
o FNPF provide a lot of money for private support- These are Members money
o Making high schools into technical high schools like in Australia. It’s a way of pulling
resources together


Source: Review team data base, 2007



103

FIT/TPAF REVIEW
General Questions- ASCO MOTORS
USP Technology Department
Dr Alfred Liligeto; Mrs Naisilisili, Ms Sarai, Mrs Tarabe, Mr Sagaitu


Ministers plan for FIT

To upgrade FIT into a University of Science and Technology in a near future
Plus establishing and upgrading of 20 vocational centres as Mini FIT offering
certificate and Trade certificate Skill qualification. This is planned to done in 6
phases
Technical trade Diploma and Degree to offered only at FIT


What kind of University do we need in Fiji?
The proposal for the merge of FIT and TPAF to be controlled under one
management and probably one leadership
Whether it is feasible and affordable to have another University for a small country
like Fiji?
Already we have USP and University of Fiji. Is a good move to have another
university?

USP is not offering technical degrees like a ful engineering degree - Electrical,
mechanical, Civil
USP is only offering Technology degree for higher management level/profession and
teachers profession- BTech and Bed Tech

USP offers technology degree similar to other universities but other university may
have the programme under a different name like University of New Castle offering
TVET degree at FIT
FIT offer semi skill programme for the industries
Can USP offer the similar degree without having to go to FIT for TVET degree?
Is it possible to have a common course from Home Economic and Technology that
will attract the students and parents?
Is it possible to have a press release for the public to be aware of all the programs
that USP is offering?

FIT BED TVET is for tertiary target group whereas the USP Bed targets the
secondary clients


School a system we determine the curriculum where as in Vocational- Anthology (
Student Centre )and Pedagogy ( Teacher Centred/ Teaching Model)
Have good advertisement to showcasing the courses offered at USP Technology
Department
FIT focus is more towards tertiary trend whereas USP on secondary and
management profession
Choices of where really to go for a degree is up to the students and parents if the are
on private. Government sponsored students may not have the choice to choose
which university they prefer to go to
They can do courses that are not offered at USP. For example do civil engineering at
USP whereas Mechanical and Electrical can be done at FIT
What are the chances of Cross Credit some units from the IDTT and other
programme from FIT.USP does not Cross credit from FCAE
See What is the opportunity of Cross credit some units from FCAE technology
department
Source: Review team data base, 2007



104


FIT/TPAF REVIEW
General Questions - Willie Kwansing :
Remington- Fiji Island Chamber of Commerce

FIT:
FIT and TPAF are like two circles with overlapping activities
A lot of activities are in places for both institutions
Fit is teachers driven; TPAF is learner driven
FIT is pre-service while TPAF is in-service


TPAF
Primarily for levy payers who are contributing 1% levy to TPAF
Remington workers would go for up-skilling and training to TPAF than FIT. It is because of
the levy scheme that they have to utilise. TPAF have the infrastructure, manpower and
technical expertise to up skill people from industries
Why TPAF would teach dip in accounting? And so is FIT? There is a common role with
different functions to play but both schools are full showing the demand from industries..
But the Quality of production/graduates is at stake. TPAF would have a small number of
students but quality is there whereas FIT has big numbers but the quality is another
question. This where the country needs NQF to rule the national standard of delivery and
production
There is a competition between the two schools in terms of training provision and courses
offered
USP again is another provider which is more academic
TPAF has Levy grant Scheme of 1% from industries as a requirement in the TPAF act for
all registered industries except the teachers/military and nurses
TPAF will compensate the company for training the worker
o For example a skill training for 5 days may cost $500.00 in fees plus levy
o Industry can claim up 90% of the amount
o TPAF wil pay the refund in cheque order
o Training provision is in two methods; either the workers can go to TPAF or TPAF
comes to the industry on in-house training basis
o TPAF Provides a regulated training

1. NQF:
a. Criticized for being the player, referee
b. But it is the way forwards for skills development and productivity in Fiji
c. NQF is very critical and will provide the benchmark for all training providers
d. Need wider Consultation process between all parties- industries,
government, schools, training providers, stakeholders etc
e. NQF: Key stakeholder are the industries
f. Proposal for NQF to come under MOE which is a neutral body in the
system
g.
If the levy system is take away what incentive are there to sent the workers to TAPF for
industry related training
After training, they are skilled and competent in fork force but the industry tend loose
them for other industries for higher salary
Japanese model: If you don’t train your workers they become monotonous and
incompetent. To retain workers in the same company they do job rotation in house on the
different production lines etc to keep work lively. They end up multi-skilled
Industry should be involved in education and training
Education system should work as a team for all stake holders

Possible merger of FIT and TPAF
Source: Review team data base, 2007


105

Appendix 5.0
Report on Fiji Business Excellence Award
Table 5.1 Fiji Business Excellence Awards- TPAF
FIJI BUSINESS EXCELLENCE AWARDS PROCESS
EVENT

2004
2005
2006
2007
APPLICANT INFORMATION SEMINAR




SUVA $1,270.00
$1,820.00
$2,940.00
$514.00
LAUTOKA $1,365.50
$1,497.00
$722.50
$890.00





EVALUATORS’ TRAINING
$39,113.74 $20,072.36
$13,291.50
$20,870.90


EVALUATION & SITE VISIT
$41,318.00 $23,417.50
$37,510.50
$58,655.00





FBEA NIGHT
$67,583.53 $51,483.34
$70,653.65






TOTAL EXPENSES
$150,650.77
$98,290.20
$125,118.1

5





REVENUE




TICKET SALES
$13,020.00 $15,240.00
$25,
950.00

APPLICANT INFORMATION SEMINAR
$2,040.00 $2,880.00
$5,520.00
$2,080.00
FEES
SPONSORSHIP

- -
$5,000.00
-





TOTAL REVENUE
$15,060.00
$18,120.00
$36,470.00






TOTAL AMOUNT SPENT ON FBEA
$135,590.77
$80,170.02
$88,648.15

Source: Report on Fiji Business Excellence Award Survey, 2007

REPORT ON
2007
FBEA SURVEY


1.0

PURPOSE OF SURVEY
This survey was conducted with the aim of gauging the impact of the FBEA on the participating
organizations.
2.0 FINDINGS

Source of Information on FBEA Awards
Figure 1 below represents how the responding organizations came to know about FBEA. It depicts
that most of the organizations came to know about FBEA either through TPAF Staff, newsletters or
e-mails sent by TPAF staff.


Figure 1: Source of Information about FBEA
17%

0%
25%

8%


17%
25%

8% 0%

From Training Officers and Staff
TPAF Newsletters

TPAF Handbook
TPAF Website

E-mail Updates
Newspaper Advertisements
TV/Radio
Others

106

Value of Feedback Reports to the Organizations
In this section the participating organizations were asked to give their opinions on evaluator’s
feedback reports that were given back to the organizations after the evaluation had taken place.
The table below provides a summary of the responses received.

Table 5.2 : Feedback Reports

Value of Evaluator’s Feedback report to Organization
% of responding
organizations making the
point
Largely useless and demoralizing to the staff
8
Assessors were not qualified to address the technical aspects
8
Provided a guideline to producing more constructive & meaningful
18
report
Helped identify opportunities to capitalize on.
34
Helped in understanding the framework better. Assisted in
8
identifying success indicators, monitoring its approach and
deployment and evidence reporting to support the results
achieved.
Provided valuable insights into areas where improvements could be
8
made to improve performance of organization and their
employees.
Recommendations were useful and incorporated into annual
8
operating plans.
Allowed us to use an internationally accepted framework to gauge
8
the standard & effectiveness of quality management systems and
policies
Source: TPAF Management 2007

Recognition at FBEA Night

67% of the responding organizations to the survey were recognized at the FBEA Night and received
awards for their achievements whilst 33% did not get recognized at the awards night.


Organizational Changes Undertaken for Successful Adoption and Implementation of FBEA
Framework

In order to successfully adopt and implement the FBEA Framework most organizations had to
undergo some notable changes. The following changes were highlighted by the responding
organizations:

• Benchmarking to measure and match industry standards.
• The recommendations in the evaluators’ reports were adopted as strategies for
improvement.
• Organizations had to create cross functional FBEA committees/teams to look after FBEA
issues.
• Organizations had to conduct FBEA Framework awareness program for staff and
management.
• Organization standard operating procedures had to be reviewed and changes were
incorporated based on the feedback reports.
• Training programs had to undertaken to equip staff to handle the changes.
• Internal Quality Circles were reinforced.




107



Changes Employees had to undertake

Given certain organizational aspects had to be changed in order to align the organization to the
FBEA framework, it is logical that employees would have had to undergo some changes. Some of
the noted changes that employees had to go through were:

• Employees had to adhere to strategies that introduced through the recommendations in
the feedback report.
• Employees had to go on training to prepare them for organizational changes.
• Employees had to identify with and share common goals.
• Employees were empowered to better serve customers.
• Employees had to undergo reshuffling in functional teams and realignment of individual
roles and responsibilities.
• Employees had to commit to team building and exercise better time management at work
– a positive mind set.

Views on Impact of Changes to the Organization

Respondents had the following views on how the implemented changes have affected the
organization:

• All work is standardized and productivity levels have improved.
• Able to compare performance levels with industry standards.
• Great learning experienced towards continual improvement.
• Organizations were able to identify potential areas for development and improvement.
• Changes have led to improved efficiency and effectiveness.
• Employees are now more focused.
• Organization has become more innovative.


Changes in Organizational Operational Processes under FBEA Framework

The participating organizations had to undertake certain changes in the processes to align
themselves to the FBEA Framework. Some of the process changes identified were:

• Operational processes had to be changed to support and enhance the change culture in the
organization.
• Organization structures had to be changed from hierarchical to a flat one to enable easier
communication channels and streamline processes and procedures.
• Open door policy was implemented without the threat of victimization.
• Process had to be reviewed and smarter and more efficient ways of doing things had to be
introduced.
• All processes reflected market research and succession planning that the organization had
undertaken.

Impact of the FBEA Framework on Organizations Standing in Society

Responding organizations believed that the adoption of the FBEA Framework had an impact on how
the society viewed their organization. Some of the noted changes were:

• Positive support and encouragement from customers locally and abroad.
• Lifted organization profile with the corporate society.
• Customers are noticing positive effects of the changes through better customer services.
• Made organizations more comparable with other excellent businesses in the country.
• Services are more appreciated by people.
• Product quality being acknowledged.
• Organization viewed as dynamic and attracts better candidates for employment.


108

Important Lessons from the FBEA Process

Some of the important lessons that organizations have learnt through their involvement with the
FBEA include:

• Success comes from within the organization and not from achievement of results.
• Having a dynamic working environment will produce quality products and services.
• Excellent processes and procedures are vital to being a dynamic organization.
• FBEA leads to improved organizational learning, employee participation and focus on
organizational mission and vision.

Suggestions to improve FBEA

Responding organizations made the following recommendations that could lead to improvement in
the FBEA:

• More frequent organization visits.
• Provide training on FBEA.
• More awareness of FBEA.
• Make feedback from organizations compulsory.
• Very experienced evaluators should evaluate for ‘prize’ and ‘presidents level’.
• Team leaders should ensure that their team members do not breach code of ethics during
visits.
• Team leaders should make themselves available during feedback.

3.0 CONCLUSION

From the feedback received it can be concluded that FBEA, in general, has had many positive
impacts on the organizations that have adopted it. The positive effects have been noticed by the
organizations, their customers as well as the society the organizations are based in. The workings
of the framework, however, at this stage have not been perfected and can be further improved
through the suggestions provided by the respondents.

Source: TPAF Management, 2007

APPENDIX 6.0: INDUSTRY INSTITUTION-A CASE STUDY
1. Fiji Electricity Authority

The Fiji Electricity Authority (FEA) was established under the Electricity Act 1966 and is solely
responsible for generating, transmitting and retailing electricity in Fiji.

Its vision is “Energizing our people and our Nation” with a Mission Statement “We will provide
clean and affordable energy solutions to Fiji and the Pacific. We aim to provide all energy
through renewable resources by 2011”
.


FEA sets high priority on its Core Values of Customer Focus, Teamwork, Honesty, Transparency,
the Courage to do what is right for FEA, Individual Accountability and Innovation.

FEA generates electricity in the two main islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, and in the smal er
island of Ovalau.

In Viti Levu, over 60% of the electricity is generated at the Wailoa hydro-electric power station (water
supplied by the Monasavu dam) in a normal year. The rest of the demand is met from diesel engine /
generator sets installed at various locations and from independent power producers.

In Vanua Levu, FEA has a mini hydro power station at Wainiqeu and two main diesel power stations
at Labasa and Savusavu. Low voltage networks distribute power to each associated community. The
Labasa and Wainiqeu/Savusavu systems are not interconnected.

109


On the island of Ovalau, the sole supply is from the Levuka diesel power station and the associated
low voltage network.
The production of electrical energy in the financial year ended 31 December 2003 was 628 GWh.
The demand for electrical energy is growing at over five percent (5%) per annum. This energy was
produced from a total installed generating capacity of about 140 MW, 80 MW of which is hydro power
from the Wailoa power station. The maximum demand was 106 MW in 2003. FEA has 143 km of
132kV and 285 km of 33kV transmission lines as well as 6,200 km of 11kV and low voltage
distribution lines.
THE FUNCTIONS WITHIN FEA
Fiji Electricity Authority has nine (9) Divisions/Strategic Business Units which comprises of:
Chief Executive Officer & Corporate Affairs Office, Finance, Supply Chain, Human Resources,
Network, Generation, Major Projects, Marketing and Regulatory

As at May 2006, there were 553 full time staff employed with the Authority.
FEA CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN 2006-2010:
In order to make Fiji’s energy sources totally renewable by 2011; FEA will be implementing a $300
million capital expenditure program to build more hydro schemes, wind farms, and other alternative
forms of energy. This is to meet future energy demand and slowly get away from generating energy
from diesel power stations. FEA has been hit badly with the rising fuel prices during the past three (3)
years.

FEA’S RESTRUCTURE
FEA is one of the government’s statutory bodies that underwent a major restructure in 2001 that led
to outsourcing of non and core activities leading to a reduction of workforce from 1050 in 2001 to 553
in May 2006.
These structural and cultural reforms which commenced in 2001 have reduced FEA’s controllable
operating costs by more than $15 million and organisation structure levels reduced from nine( 9 )
levels to five (5) from the CEO to the lowest ranked staff in FEA.
The years 2005 -2006 onwards have been years of consolidation and embedding of changes in FEA.

During these changes, the three (3) Unions had been consulted on the FEA structural changes and
relationships have moved from adversarial to more of respect and complimentary during the
challenging times of structural reforms.
FEA’S CURRENT AND FUTURE BUSINESS CHALLENGES
FEA’s current and future challenges include the following:

Be a Customer Focused, Lean & Adaptive organization, but
o not compromising security and reliability of the Power System and Information &
Communication Technology (ICT)
o maximize productivity and achieve target return to the shareholder
Provide Excellent and Reliable Service to all its Customers
Focus on Renewable Energy sources for future power generation
Ensure safety of the Public, Employees and Environment at all times
Operate as a fully Commercial Entity
Move forward with leading-edge technology and human resources development.
Be responsible for the independent regulatory function as per the requirements of the Electricity
Act
Further increases in productivity are planned for the next 3 years; however, a greater emphasis has
also been placed on increasing the security and reliability of supplying current and future electricity
demands in the short, medium and longer time frames, thus protecting Fiji’s future, today.
FEA CORE SKILLS IDENTIFIED
FEA core skills include Electricians, Technicians, Cable Jointers, Inspectors, Linesmen, Liveline and
Electrical/Mechanical/Civil Engineers

110

FEA’s labour market statistics & Most Demanding Labour Skills Required:
THE CURRENT SITUATION
Whilst there are a lot of qualified people in the market, FEA is unable to attract the right people for its
requirements since the core skills required demand specialised FEA training at FIT or overseas.

FEA can attain readily from the market non-core skills like Finance, Marketing, HR and Telecom
positions. This is because of the abundance of these skills in both the employment and the
unemployment market.

However, as for the Core skills, FEA finds it difficult to attract them in the local market particularly
because they are speciality technical skills which could be developed within FEA, overseas and in to
some extent from FIT.

FEA over the years have been struggling to get good candidates for the Engineers and for the
Linesmen & Liveline training, FEA invests about $ 15,000 - $25,000 per person, which is a
combination of local and overseas training.
THE WAR FOR TALENT GLOBALLY IMPACTING FEA’S CORE SKILLS
In the last three (3) years, FEA have noted that a lot of its employees have migrated to New Zealand
and Australia to fill roles left by their citizens who have left for better job offers and excellent
packages in Europe, UK and USA. They have been advised that the main reason for taking FEA
staff is because Fiji employees speak and write good English, are very well trained, experienced and
are motivated to work.

In a nutshell, FEA has to some extent been training people from its core functions for the NZ &
Australian markets. These FEA employees who join overseas companies start at NZ/Australia
salaries at 2 ½ times to 3 times what they normally get at FEA.

It is an accepted fact that FEA will continually lose its people overseas going forward.
To understand how FEA has been losing its people, the Table 1 below states the core skills
migration trends only for 2005 and for the first 6 months of 2006.
TABLE 6.1 – MIGRATION/RESIGNATIONS OF CORE SKILLS:


Core Skills Resignation/Migration Overseas


Note:The table below only summarises the core skills

and includes non-core skills numbers

200
Position
5
2006 YTD Total

Electricians 2
4
6

Engineers 2
1
3

Technicians 6
3
9

Linesmen 2
3
5

Cable Jointers
1
1
2

Liveline 4
4
8

Team Leader, Liveline
1
2
3

Inspectors 2
1
3


20 19 39


2005 Staff Turnover Rate:
7%



YTD 2006 Staff Turnover
Rate:

2%



Source: fea Management 2006

111

Table 6.2: core skills that will be recruited within the Authority in 2006-2008 periods
Core Skills Recruitment Plans 2006-2008



Position
No. Required
06
07
08
1 Trainee Electrical Mechanics
38 28
10
0
2 Engineers
18 10
9
0
3 Apprentices Technicians
19 10
9
0
4 Linemen/Liveline
0 0
0
0
Total of Core Positions to be recruited
75
48
28
0
Source: fea management 2006




MOST DEMANDING LABOUR SKILLS REQUIRED:
The most demanding skills required as confirmed in the above table for the next 3 years are:

Electrical Engineers – Overseas qualified
Mechanical Engineers – Overseas qualified
Civil Engineers – Overseas qualified
Trainee Electrical Mechanics – Min. Diploma qualified at FIT
Liveline – NZ/Australia trained

This is also critical, as FEA will be embarking on a $300 million capital investment building renewable
sources of energy and its supporting infrastructure in the next 3-5 years.
FEA has to have the right people technical and people competencies to be able to manage and drive
these projects to meet the current and future energy demands of the people of Fiji.

COMMENT ON LOCAL TRAINING PROVIDERS TO MEET OUR CORE SKILLS REQUIREMENTS:
FIT is the only local institution that is partly meeting FEA’s local core training needs and their
programs lead towards the Trade Certificate, Diploma and Advanced Diploma program.
Whilst the University of the South Pacific offers a Bachelor of Technology program, it does not meet
FEA’s Engineering requirements, as this program is more general rather than Electrical specific.
During the second half of 2006, FIT will be offering year 4 & year 5 of the Bachelor of Engineering
program from the University of Southern Queensland. Whist this will help in the training of Engineers
for the Fiji and FEA market, FEA hopes that FIT will get in qualified and experienced Lecturers to
teach these engineering programmes locally
For the non-Engineering core skil s, intensive Training is conducted internal y by FEA Training
Officers for these employees to be not only competent but also authorised to operate FEA assets. In
addition, Liveline training is paid for by FEA to send 10-15 people annually to either NZ or Australia
costing FEA between $15k-$25k per person.
In summary, the local institutions do not fully meet FEA’s requirements and demands.
OFFSHORE MARKET:
FEA has in the past recruited overseas engineers and Managers in specialist roles to fill roles that
cannot be filled from within the Fiji market.
This is an expensive option for FEA. However, if the need arises this option will be pursued.

112

To address this problem, FEA has in the past organised 3-6 months overseas attachments for
graduating students in order to expose them to international work standards and professionalism in
overseas utilities.
FEA has also put in succession plans to train locals to replace these expatriate managers when they
complete their term.
Challenges in terms of our Core Skills:
The challenges for FEA as a business in terms of meeting its core skills are:

Increase migration of core skills, that is, 20 in 2005 and possibly 30 by the end of 2006 (19 have
migrated so far in the first 6 months of this year) to countries like Australia and New Zealand
The difficulty to attract overseas trained Mechanical, Civil especially the Electrical Engineers in the
Fiji market
Expensive Training costs to train live line who are qualified Electrical Power Linemen and to be
accredited to carry out installation and maintenance works on “live” electrical power lines.
The lack of local institutions to meet all our Training needs in terms of core skills
Increase recruitment to meet migration and future demands
FUTURE DEVELOPMENT PLANS:
FEA has for the past 2 years selected its own people with Advanced Diploma to complete the
Bachelor of Engineering program with Auckland University of Technology for another 2 years fully
funded by the Authority. Two will graduate at the end of 2006 and another 2 at the end of 2007. In
addition, another employee will graduate with her Masters in Electrical Engineering at the end of
2006.
FEA will also pursue sending FEA staff from the core skills for overseas Utility companies in NZ,
Australia and Singapore to gain exposure and learn from the best. This incentive is at FEA’s cost.
The Authority will also continue its recruitment of Apprentices to fill vacuum left by migrating
Linesmen & Technicians. FEA will continue to train more Electrical Power Linemen and also live
linemen overseas to fill the demand and the gaps left by migrating employees.
Recommendations:
For FEA to be able to address this core skills shortage, we recommend the following:

More government and overseas donor scholarships to be offered for degree in Engineering
majoring in Electrical, Mechanical and Civil in recognised overseas institutions
Government either through FAB or PSC to allocate 2 Engineering overseas scholarships to FEA
on an annual basis
Government to organise government t to government attachments with the view of some of our
people in core skills to be attached in overseas companies paid for by overseas
governments
FIT degree program in Electrical Engineering to meet overseas university standards and for
FIT/USQ to put in their resource to getting proper qualified professors/lecturers
Conclusion: FEA has been and will continue to face some core skills shortage in the future.

113

(Source: fea management)

APPENDIX 7.0: KEY ECONOMIC DATA
Table 7.1: Key Economic Data
Gross Domestic Product at Current and Constant (1995) Prices


Current Prices
Constant (1995) Prices
(FJD
Growth Rate /
Growth Rate
Change
(FJD
Change
Year
Million
Head of
Per Head of
(%)
Million)
(%)
)
Population (%)
Population (%)
1995 2,373 3.5%
2.3%
2,373
0%
0%
1996 2,578 8.7%
7.7%
2,487
4.8%
3.9%
1997 2,587 0.3%
-1.3%
2,433
-2.2%
-3.8%
1998 2,815 8.8%
7.6%
2,465
1.3%
0.2%
1999 3,280 16.5%
15.2%
2,682
8.8%
7.6%
2000 3,151 -3.9%
-4.4%
2,646
-1.4%
-1.9%
2001 3,302 4.8%
4.0%
2,691
1.7%
1.0%
2002 3,475 5.3%
4.5%
2,770
2.9%
2.2%
2003 3,680 5.9%
4.5%
2,803
1.2%
-0.1%
2004 4,001 8.7%
8.1%
2,961
5.6%
5.0%
Source: Key Statistics June 2006 (p.11), Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics, 2006. Suva

Table 7.2 Merchandise Imports and Exports
Value of Merchandise Imports and Exports (F$ Billion): Table 2
Year
Total Imports Total Exports
Balance of Trade
2000 1.822
1.254
-0.568
2001 2.017
1.218
-0.799
2002 1.970
1.232
-0.738
2003 2.285
1.266
-1.019
2004 2.501
1.200
-1.301
2005 2.723
1.187
-1.536
2006
0.914 0.319
-
(4 months only)
Source: Key Statistics June 2006 (p.11), Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics, 2006. Suva.

APPENDIX 8.0: STATISTICS

Table 8.1: TVET Education Providers
TVET Education Providers & Courses offered
Years
Total Courses Offered
1. Number of Secondary

TVET
TVET
Schools offering TVET & vocational subjects
1970-1980
Academic
Vocational

Centres
centres
Home
Economics
88
16
Industrial
Arts

Agriculture
Science
Computer
Education



Office
Technology
1981-1990
136
36
Automotive
Engineering

Catering & Tailoring

Carpentry & Joinery

114

Vocational
Agriculture




1991- 2006
148
62 with 11
centres
pending
approval
1. Number of Trade Courses at FIT/ DTI



Automobile Engineering Road Transport
1970-1980
64

Building & Civil Engineering
Commerce
Electrical
&
Electronics



Genera Studies-
1981-1990
88
Hospitality
&
Tourism
Maritime

Mechanical Engineering



Printing & Graphics Design
1991- 2006
115
Franchised
2. Number of Trade courses of FNTC/TPAF



1970-1980
160

PQTD - Productivity & Quality Training
EEETD - Electrical Electronics Engineering
Industry Training



MPITD- Marine Ports Industry Training
1981-1990
445
HTITD- Hospitality & Tourism Industry Training
CITD- Construction Industry Training

MEITD- Mechanical Engineering Industry Training



MITD- Manufacturing Industry Training

1991- 2006
ITTD- Information Technology Training Department
970

4. Private Vocational Providers [Formal]
1970-1980
7
APTECH, NZPTC, CQU, COMPUTECH, Monfort, etc
1981-1990
20
1991- 2006
49
5. Non-Formal Vocational Education Providers
1970-1980 23
AVT, MOY- Vocational Programmes, Church-based
1981-1990
39
schools- Tutu Vocational, YPD, etc
1991- 2006
86
SOURCE: ADB SKILLS STUDY REPORT 2007
TABLE 8.2: TPAF ENROLMENT & TRAINING

Training Department

2002
Non Award
# Of
Award
# Of
Courses
Participants
Courses
Participants
PQTD- Productivity & Quality
97 3333 9
1306
Training

EEETD - Electrical Electronics
42 924
Engineering Industry Training
MPITD- Marine Ports Industry
37 388
Training
189 2744 4 169
HTITD- HOSPITALITY & TOURISM
INDUSTRY TRAINING
CITD- Construction Industry Training
51
770

MEITD- Mechanical Engineering
90 2371

Industry Training
MITD- Manufacturing Industry
167 1933 2 120
Training
ITTD-Information Technology Training
272
2755

Total 945
15,258
15 1595


Training Department

2003

115

Non Award
# Of
Award
# Of
Courses
Participants
Courses
Participants
PQTD- Productivity & Quality
167 3146 8
1555
Training

EEETD - Electrical Electronics
79 1197

Engineering Industry Training
MPITD- Marine Ports Industry
34 410
Training
171 2720 9 262
HTITD- HOSPITALITY & TOURISM
INDUSTRY TRAINING
CITD- Construction Industry Training
63
967

MEITD- Mechanical Engineering
156 2894

Industry Training
MITD- Manufacturing Industry
183 1560 4 38
Training
ITTD-Information Technology Training
117 1259 2 137
Total 970
14,153
23 1992

Training Department

2004
Non Award
# Of
Award
# Of
Courses
Participants
Courses
Participants
PQTD- Productivity & Quality
160 4532

Training

EEETD - Electrical Electronics
118 1925

Engineering Industry Training
MPITD- Marine Ports Industry
56 734

Training
188 2862

HTITD- HOSPITALITY & TOURISM
INDUSTRY TRAINING
CITD- Construction Industry Training 54
893

MEITD- Mechanical Engineering
149 2824

Industry Training
MITD- Manufacturing Industry
188 1493

Training
ITTD-Information Technology Training
239 1764

Total 1150
16,997

Source: TPAF Management, 2007

Training Department

2005
Non Award
# Of
Award
# Of
Courses
Participants
Courses
Participants
PQTD- Productivity & Quality
210 4072 8
1390
Training

EEETD - Electrical Electronics
171 2784

Engineering Industry Training
MPITD- Marine Ports Industry
56 686
Training
137 2352 7 125
HTITD- HOSPITALITY & TOURISM
INDUSTRY TRAINING
CITD- Construction Industry Training
106
1622

MEITD- Mechanical Engineering
255 4604

Industry Training
MITD- Manufacturing Industry
369 2599 17 350
Training
ITTD-Information Technology
196 1530 4 112

116

Training
Total

1507
20,297 36 1977
Source: TPAF Management, 2007
Table 8.3: TPAF Graduation Summary 2001-2005
TPAF GRADUATION SUMMARY








Graduation Numbers

Field
2004
2003
2002
2001
2005
Aircraft Maintenance




1
Automotive Electrical
1
3
2
6
3
Automotive Engineering




5
Automotive Mechanic
11
14
10
8
8
Boiler Making


1
3
3
Certificate IV in Assessment & Workplace Training




17
Cook


2
1

Electrical Fitter/Mechanic
7
4
11
16
21
Electronics


8
10
16
Fitting & Machining
7
16
14
21
10
Heavy Commercial Vehicle Mechanic
1
4
1
3
3
Heavy Mobile Plant Mechanic
2
2
2
8

Industrial Engineering




5
Marine Engineering


3
2

Mechanical Engineering




10
Navigation & Seamanship


1
1

Panel Beating
1
8
2
1
5
Plant Engineering




1
Plumbing
1

1
5
4
Printing


1
1

Refrigeration and Airconditioning

3
2
3
4
Saw Doctor
1


1
1
Telecommunications Engineering




5
Welding & Fabricating
1
2
7
5
9
Electrical Engineering
1
1


20
TPAF & WESTERN SYDNEY INSTITUTE OF TAFE





TAFE Statement in Information Technology (Hospitality)
20




Statement of Attainment in Tourism (Marketing Management)




5
Certificate II in Hospitality (Operations)
85

115

50
Certificate II in Hospitality (Kitchen Operations)
12



17
Certificate III in Hospitality (Accomodation Services)




2
Certificate III in Hospitality (Food & Beverage)




1
Certificate III in Hospitality (Operations)
45

32

10
Certificate III in Hospitality (Commercial Cookery)
28



10
Certificate IV in Business Marketing




9
Certificate IV in Hospitality Supervision (Commercial Cookery)
3



12
Certificate IV in Hospitality Supervision
18



17
Certificate IV in Technical Support




42
Diploma in Business Marketing




6
Advanced Diploma in Hospitality Management




18
Diploma in Hospitality Management
17



29
Diploma in Systems Administration




34
TPAF & UNIVERSITY OF SUNSHINE COAST.





Graduate Certificate in Management
3

19
9
15
Graduate Certificate in Human Resource Management
2




Graduate Diploma in Management
5

8
4
8
Masters of Management
1

3

7

117


TPAF & WESTERN SYDNEY INSTITUTE OF TAFE





Certificate II in Information Technology


1


Certificate III in Information Technology


1
46

Certificate IV in Information Technology ( Technical Support)
87

12


Diploma of Information Technology (Systems Administration)
31

22


Advanced Diploma of Quality Management
57



76
Certificate II in Accounting



111

Certificate III in Financial Services (Accounts Clerical)
54

1

39
Certificate IV in Financial Services (Accounting)
29

2
54
16
Diploma of Accounting
54

21

27
Advanced Diploma of Accounting
18

16
22
9
Certificate III in Quality Management for Business Excellence


42
222

Certificate IV in Quality Management for Business Excellence


47
106

Diploma in Quality Management for Business Excellence


129
84

Diploma in Quality Management for Business Excellence


124
51

TAFE Certificate in Business Services



73

TPAF & NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA





Diploma in Occupational Health & Safety
24

3


Certificate III in Occupational Health & Safety
13


11
19
Certificate IV in Occupational Health & Safety
25



5
TPAF & ROYAL MELBOURNE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY





Certificate III in Clothing Production
1


61

Certificate IV in Clothing Production
28


33

Diploma in Clothing Industry
19


26

TPAF & SOUTHERN CROSS UNIVERSITY





Graduate Certificate in Management
2
TOTAL
713
57 666 1010 634







Source: TPAF Management, 2007

Table 8.4
MoE/TVET Teacher Qualification Analysis for 2005
Subject Area.
Total No.
Degree
Degree
Diploma
Diploma
Trade
Trade
of Teachers
Trained.
Untrained
Trained
untrained
Certificate
Certificate
trained
Untrained
Agriculture
230 52
13
147
5 5 5
Science

Computer
104 36 26 40 2 - -
Education

Home Economics
226 73
3
120
- 23 -

Industrial
343 72 18 218 4 23 8
Arts.

Office
60 NA NA 34 24 2 2
Technology

Automotive
46 2
NA
11
13 14 6
Engineering

Carpentry and
51 NA NA 18 30 3 NA
Joinery

118


Catering and
48 5 NA 14 6 2 21
Tailoring

Source: TVET Section-MoE 2006
TABLE 8. 5: NUMBER OF SCHOOLS OFFERING TVET SUBJECTS
Level 
No. of schools 

Form 1 
16 
Form 2 
16 
Form 3 
94 
Form 4 
94 
Form 5 
87 
Form 6 
85 
Form 7 
75 
Grand total 
94 
 
 
Source TVET Section, MoE 2006 

Table 8.6 Classes versus TVET Students % Intake

School Level 
Number of students % 
Form 1 
8.3 
Form 2 
10 
Form 3 
34.5 
Form 4 
32 
Form 5 
21
Form 6 
16
Form 7 
10.17
Source: MOE Annual Report, 2006 

Table 8.7: Vocational students Graduates 2000-2005
Prog
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F M
F
M
F
Agriculture 86
19
74
11
55
5
52
10
126 
21 107 14
sub total
105
85
60
62
147
121
Automotive engineering
326
34
402
23
505
30
772
28
428 
40 672
38
sub total
360
425
535
800
468
710
Carpentry and joinery
350
2
410
-
505
-
480
2
372 
- 413 -
sub total
352
410
505
483
372
413
Catering and tailoring
15
460
2 489
11
749
41
658
43 
515 54 902
sub total
475
491
760
699
558
956
Office technology
1
188
- 190
2
153
2
103
‐ 
215 - 127
sub total
189
190
155
105
215
127
total male & female
778
703
888
713
628
937
1347
801
969 
791 
1246
181
GRAND TOTAL
1481
1601
2015
2149
1922
2327
Source: MOE Annual Report 2006 

119



TABLE 8.8: LABOUR FORCE ENTRANTS AND EMPLOYMENT ABSORPTION (BOTH SEXES)- 2002 – 2007


Avg. Annual, 2002-2007
Total


Components
No.
Pct.%
2002 – 2007
Labour
School leavers entering labour force
14,500
81.9
72,500
Force
(including from Post Secondary



Entrants
Institutions)







Belated entrants into the labour force
600
3.4
3,000
(almost exclusively women)







Laid-off workers seeking re-
2,400
13.6
12,000
employment



Never attended school




200
1.1
1,000
Total



17,700
100.0
88,500
Formal
Replacements for emigrating (formal
[2,070]
[11.7]
[10,350]
Sector
sector) employed persons.



Employment
Replacements for employed persons



Opportunities
leaving formal sector due to normal
2,900
[16.4]
[14,500]
attrition



(2.5%xavg. 116,000 employed in year



2000)







New formal sector employment



(2.6% per annum)
[4,000]
[22.6]
[20,000]




Total formal sector



8,970
50.7
44,850
Informal Sector and
Replacements for employed persons
[2,040]
[11.5]
[10,200]
cash-crop or mixed
leaving informal (non-farming)



cash crop/subsistence employment and cash-crop



agriculture
agriculture due to normal attrition



(1.7%x120,000)







Targeted expansion in employment



opportunities to absorb balance of
[6,690]
[37.8]
[33,450]
labour force entrants if nos.



unemployed and those in subsistence



agriculture employment are not to



expand. (5.8% per annum)







Total informal sector and agriculture
8,730
49.3
43,650
Total Employment



Opportunities
17,700
100.0
88,500
Source: BUREAU OF STATISTICS, 2007

120

Table 8.9: POVERTY- LEVELS IN FIJI


National
Urban
Rural
Fijian
Indian

Relative Poverty
32.7 29.0 35.0 31.3 34.5
Line

Basic living costs

25.5 27.6 24.3 27.7 31.0
poverty line

Food Poverty

9.9 7.9 11.1 10.4 9.2
Line

Subjective

12.5
- - - -
Poverty Line

Source: BUREAU OF STATISTICS, 2007

PROPORTION OF THE POPULATION LIVING BELOW THE OFFICIAL POVERTY-LEVEL
1980s Fiji described as a society with deep inequalities but little absolute poverty
1997 Fiji Poverty Report reached similar conclusions
1997 showed 25% of household lived in poverty
Poverty pervaded all communities Fijian, Indian and others
Main difference Fijian predominated in the middle income group
Indians in the lowest and highest income groups
RURAL COMMUNITIES DEFINE POVERTY AS:
Poor housing made from traditional materials
Inability to afford school fees
Lack of farming and fishing equipment
In debt all the time
Perceived exclusion from government economic and financial opportunities.
Nature of rural/urban unemployment rates, lack of education/training social/economic factors etc
Half Fiji’s population are urbanized
Urban migration is at 2.6% per annum
Fijians at 4% has the highest urban migration rate
8,000 only of the 14-18,000 school leavers annually over find employment
Decline in rural population due to limited income generating opportunities, need for better access to
medical, and education faculties
Unemployment rate at 5.8% in 1996 of the total labour force.
2000 and redundancies and static manufacturing and formal sector have resulted in much higher
unemployment rate in 2005
Access to skills training is lacking for rural schools
Vocational and trade skills training offered very limited particularly in rural areas
Vocation and TVET skills provision is expensive for rural poor
Mismatch in labour market/resource needs and current education/training curriculum content

121

Main causes of existing poverty i.e. rural/urban unemployment rates, lack of
education/training social/economic factors etc

Source: Ministry of Labour and BUREAU OF STATISTICS, 2006
MAIN CAUSES:
Landlessness particularly for Indians and Melanesians and Fijians who have migrated to urban
areas
Migration from rural to urban
Lack of access to basic services and infrastructure
Lack of business opportunities and markets
National income inequality and uneven distribution of Fiji’s economic activities
Source: Ministry of Labour and BUREAU OF STATISTICS, 2006

Table 8.10: Overall Distribution of Household Income 1990-81
10% group
Share of total income
Average Weekly
Cumulative share of
(%)
household income (F$)
total income (%)
1. (poorest)
1.8
33.71
1.8
2. 3.3
63.73
5.1
3. 4.4
85.67
9.5
4. 5.5
105.45
15.0
5. 6.4
127.02
21.4
6. 7.7
152.22
29
7. 9.2
183.85
38.3
8
11.8 233.51 49.9
9
15.1 316.01 65.0
10. richest)
35.0
750.20
100.0
Source: Ministry of Labour and BUREAU OF STATISTICS, 2007
Special training and skills development programmes for the urban/rural poor
96 Vocational centres provide skills training,
Government Ministries e.g. Women, Youth,
Integrated Human Resources for employment Promotion is an integrated approach involving
government departments, Fiji Employers Federation, Fiji Employees Union, Chamber of
Commerce and NGOs
Use of FNPF to access skills training at FIT, TPAF, Private Vocational providers and USP
Source: Ministry of Labour and BUREAU OF STATISTICS, 2007


122

TABLE 4.11: YOUTH EMPLOYMENT & PRODUCTIVITY
Economic activity
Total
Male
Female
Total 279,381
139,524
139,857
Economically active
164,308
105,953
58,355
Not Economically Active
115,071
33,569
81,501
Source: Ministry of Labour and BUREAU OF STATISTICS, 2007
CURRENT ANNUAL LABOUR MARKET SITUATION
Approximately 18,000 enter the labour market
4,000 new job opportunities
7,000 job replacement [5,000 Formal Sector & 2,000 Informal Sector]
7,000 join the informal sector
Source: Ministry of Labour and BOS 2007
Table 8.12: Age/Sex Distribution of Unemployment, Fiji 1996
AGE
Males
Females
GROUP
Eco
Unemployed
Pct Eco Act Unemploy
Pct.
Active
15 - 19
16,503
2,448
14.8 7,935
1,854
23.4
20 - 24
27,668
2,532
9.2 14,745
1,934
13.1
25 - 29
28,629
1, 381
4.8 13,833
1,000
7.2
30 - 34
28,987
925
3.
13,824 765
5.5
2
35 +
98,265
2,316
2.4
47,381
2,110
4.5
Total
200,252
9,602
4.8 97,718
7,663
7.8
Source: As compiled from FIBS 1996 Census Tables, Table 3.3
Table 8.13: Rates of Unemployment by Sex and Education Level Completed For Age Group
15- 24

Level of Education
Males
Females
Eco-

Pct
Eco-
Unempld. Pct
Active
Unemployed
Act
Primary 11,455
401
3.5
3,512
185
5.3
Secondary 30,427
4,168
13.7
17,429
3,138
18.0
Post- Secondary
2,169
402
18.5
1,632
460
28.2
Unrecognised
120
9
7.5
107
5
4.7
Total
44,171
4,980
11.3
22,680
3,788
16.7
SOURCE: As compiled from 1996 census, provisional results,Tables OCC-5F and OCC 5M

123

Table 8.14: Students Enrolment in FIT 1996-2005
Year
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Total
2700 3300 3500 3746 4600 5033 6421 5112 6144 7623
Roll
Source: FIT Annual Report, 2006
Table 8.15- Census of Population Fiji Island 1901-1996
Ethnic Group
1901
1911
1921
1936
1946
1956
1966
1976
1986
1996
31 Mar
2 Apr
24 Apr
26 Apr
2 Oct 26 Sep
12 Sep
13 Sep 31 Aug
25 Aug
Total
120,124 139,541 157,266
198,379 259,638 345,737 476,727 588,068 715,375 775,077
Chinese
-
305
910
1,751
2,874
4,155
5,149
4,652
4,784
4,939
European 2,459
3,707
3,878
4,028
4,594
6,402
6,590 4,929 4,196
3,103
Fijian
94,397 87,096
84,475
97,651 118,070 148,134 202,176 259,932 329,305 393,575
Indian 17,105
40,286
60,634
85,002 120,414 169,403 240,960 292,896 348,704 338,818
Part European
1,516
2,401
2,781
4,574
6,142
7,810
9,687
10,276
10,297
11,685
Rotuman 2,230
2,176
2,235
2,816
3,313
4,422
5,797 7,291 8,652
9,727
Other Pacific
1,950
2,758
1,564
2,353
3,717
5,320
6,095
6,822
8,627
10,463
Islanders
All Others
467
812
789
204
514
91
273
1,270
810
2,767
Source: Ministry of Labour and BUREAU OF STATISTICS, 2007
Table 8.16: Crime Offences per 100,000 Population per Police Station 2004 by Division

Station
Southern
Western
Northern
Eastern
Grand Total
Estimated Population
332,803 356,399
79,172 112,174
880,548
2004 Crime Reports
6,824
5,659
2,157
1,934
16,574
Crime Reports per 100,000
2,050
1,588
2,724
1,724 1,882
Population
Percentage per 100,000 Population
2.1%
1.6%
2.7%
1.7%
1.9%
Source: Fiji Police Dept 2006

Table 8.17: Child Victims, Fiji 2004
Child Sexual Abuse by Age Distribution
Child Sexual Abuse by Racial Distribution
Year
Below 13 yrs 14-16 years
Total
Fijian Indian
Others
Total
Rape 16
15
31
16
15
0 31
Attempted Rape
3
3
6
4
1
1
6
DOGU 13 yrs
9
19
28
22
6
0
28
DOGU 13-16 yrs
11
26
37
29
8
0
37
Unnatural Offences
10
1
11
9
2
0
11
Indecent Exposure
8
10
18
12
6
0
18
Incest 0
3
3
1
2
0
3
Indecent Assault
43
17
60
51
5
4
60
Total 100
94
194
144
45
5
194
Source: Fiji Police Dept 2006


124

Table 8.18: Fijis Employment Statistics
Paid employment by occupational categories by sex, 1999

Occupational Categories
Male
Female
Legislators, Senior Officials and Managers
3,497
714
Professionals 7,591
7,988
Technicians and Associates
6,606
2,734
Clerks 6,790
8,117
Service Workers and Shop and Market Sales Workers
9,730
4,945
Skilled Agricultural and Fishery Workers
890
23
Craft and Related Workers
10,914
1,589
Plant and Machinery Operators and Assemblers
9,942
8,065
Elementary Occupations
13,623
4,212
Armed Forces
3,131
32
Source: Ministry of Labour and BUREAU OF STATISTICS, 2007

Table 8.19: Government Finance
Central Government Finance - Expenditure (Current) [FJD million]

2000
2001
2002
2003e
2004e
2005e
General public services
158.1
138.0
150.3
183.8
173.3
191.2
Defence 68.2
74.7
67.6
50.8
48.4
58.2
Education 151.9
162.5
179.6
170.2
181.4
191.5
Health 82.3
89.8
99.9
92.1
96.2
109.9
Social Security and Welfare Services
2.4
3.0
2.3
2.6
2.0
2.8
Housing & communities ammenities
5.5
6.1
8.0
8.0
8.7
8.5
Other Community and Social
0.5
0.6
0.9
0.8
0.9
1.0
Services
Economic Services
91.7
114.7
125.1
119.8
125.8
131.0
Source: Ministry of Labour and BUREAU OF STATISTICS, 2007

Table 8.20: Government Finance - Summary Table
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT FINANCE SUMMARY [FJD000]

Year
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
1,218,33
Current Revenue
894,055 895,987
949,388 1,079,128
1,167,709
2
Current
1,231,55
935,580 989,299 1,047,404 1,083,372
1,180,380
Expenditure
6
Surplus/Deficit -41,525
-93,312
-98,016
-4,244
-12,421
-13,224
Source: Ministry of Labour and BUREAU OF STATISTICS, 2007

125

TABLE 8.21: CURRENT REVENUE ANALYSIS BY SOURCE [FJD000]

Year
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Total Current Revenue Current
894,055
895,987 949,388
1,079,128 1,167,709
1,218,332
Customs Duties and Port Dues
226,332
456,760 521,140
662,864
700,542
723,586
Income Tax and Estate and Gift Duties
487,517
284,387 275,427
286,336
334,608
352,498
Fees, Royalties Sales and
64,621
65,443
53,083
46,193 49,533
58,146
Reimbursement
All Other Income n.e.c.
115,585
89,397
99,738
83,735
83,026
84,102
Source: Ministry of Labour and BUREAU OF STATISTICS, 2007
Table 8.22: Key Population Flow Statistics
POPULATION
31st Dec 2005 (prov est)
Fijians: 463,432
Indians: 316,093
Others: 66,560
TOTAL: 846,085
CONSUMER PRICE INDEX (Annual Average Inflation Rate)
2000 1.1
2001 4.3
2002 0.8
2003 4.2
2004 2.8
2005 2.4
Source: Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics 2006
VISITOR STATISTICS
Visitor Arrivals
2003 430,800
Qtr 1
105,055
Qtr 2
120,686
Qtr 3
148,507
Source: Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics 2006
OVERSEAS TRADE [FJD000]
Total Imports
2004 2,501,639
2005 2,722,787
2006 Qtr
682,711
1
Total Exports
2004 1,200,497
2005 1,187,786
2006 Qtr
248,284
1
Source: Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics 2006


126


Table 8.23: Population and Demography population at year end

Population
Race
Census
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003[p]
2004[p]
2005[p]
1996
Fijian 393,575
403,714
411,386
419,444
426,243
433,491
441,511
448,521
455,947
463,432
Indian
338,818
338,540
337,350
334,672
332,303
327,253
326,296
322,238
318,883
316,093
Others 42,684
46,664
48,907
52,096
51,875
54,269
57,671
60,584
63,487
66,560
Total
775,077
778,918
797,643
806,212
810,421
815,013
825,478
831,343
838,317
846,085

Note: Data from 2003 are provisional estimate

Source: Ministry of Labour and BUREAU OF STATISTICS, 2007

Table 8.24: Minimum Wage Rates
Classification
Hourly rate
Per annum
(based on 40 hour week)
General tradesman
1.92
3,993
Tradesman Class 11
1.99
4,139
Tradesman Class 1
2.09
4,347
Craftsman
2.17
4,513
Source: Wages Council Act 1997
Notes: General tradesman may not necessarily be qualified. The other categories listed above are for workers
who hold trade certificates.

Table 8.25: Wage and Salary Earners in Each Occupational Area by Sex (2000)



f

i
on

f

i
on

Occupational Area
%
pat
pat
Total
Men
% o
% o
ccu
Women
ccu
O
O
Legislators, Senior Officials
4,211
4% 3,497
83% 714 17%
and Managers
Professionals 15,579
14%
7,591
49%
7,988
51%
Technicians and Associate
9,340
8% 6,606
71%
2,734 29%
Professionals
Clerks 14,907
13%
6,790

8,117

Service Workers and Shop
14,675
13% 9,730
66% 4,945 34%
and Market Sales Workers
Skilled Agricultural and
913
1% 890
98% 23 2%
Fishery Workers
Craft and related workers
12,503
11%
10,914
87%
1,589
13%
Plant and Machinery
18,007
16% 9,942
55% 8,065 45%
Operators and Assemblers
Elementary Occupations
17,835
16%
13,623
76%
4,212
24%
Armed Forces
3,163
3%
3,131
99%
32
1%
TOTAL 111,133
100% 72,714
65% 38,419
35%
Source: Key Statistics June 2006 (p.76), Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics, 2006. Suva.




127

Table 8.26: Starting Salaries for Civil Servants
Classification
Starting salary
Audit officer (graduate in accounting)
18,723
Veterinary officer (graduate in veterinary science)
19,564
Dental officer (graduate in dentistry)
13,084
Primary or secondary school teacher (graduate)
14,266
Primary or secondary school teacher (diplomat or certificate holder)
10,436
Medical doctors (MBBS graduates)
15,884
Nurse (registered)
8,582
Clerical officer (FSLC or Form 7 level)
6,192
Secretary ( Diploma in Secretarial Studies)
6,192
Source: PSC Circular No. 32/99, 2005
TABLE 8.27: POPULATION GROWTH RATE

Total
Fijian
Indian
Year
Growth Rate
Growth Rate
Growth Rate
Population
Population
Population
1996 777,114 0.63 393,575
0.60
338,818 -0.04
1997 788,918 1.52 403,714
2.58
338,540 -0.08
1998 797,643 1.07 419,444
1.96
334,672 -0.35
1999 806,212 1.07 419,444
1.96
334,672 -0.79
2000 810,421 0.52 426,243
1.62
332,303 -0.71
2001 815,013 0.57 433,491
1.70
327,253 -1.52
2002[p] 825,478 1.28 441,511 1.85 326,296 -0.29
2003[p] 831,343 0.71 448,521 1.59 322,238 -1.24
2004[p] 838,317 0.84 455,947 1.66 318,883 -1.04
2005[p] 846,085 0.93 463,342 1.62 316,093 -0.87
Source: Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics 2006
TABLE 8.28: DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS FROM PREVIOUS POPULATION CENSUSES
1996
1986
Indicators
Urban
Rural
Total
Total
Total population, Males
180,119
213,812
393,931
362,568
Total population, Females
179,376
201,770
381,146
352,807

Male
Female
Total
Total
Median Age
21
22
21
21
Sex Ratio

103
103
Population Density for Land Area

42
39
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

25
-
Crude Death Rate (CDR)

26
-
Dependency Ratio

62.5
70.4
Source: Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics 2006
Table 8.29: Summary of Visitor Arrivals and Departures
Year
Arrivals
Departures
1999 409,955
404,510
2000 294,070
294,286
2001 348,014
342,067
2002 397,859
395,118
2003 430,800
424,058
Source: Embarkation and Disembarkation Cards - Department of Immigration. Note:* Includes visitors whose departure cards were
not processed.



128

Table 8.30: Visitor Arrivals by Country of Residence
New
Cont
Taiwa Malaysi
Rest of
Pac
Year
Australia
USA
Canada
UK
Japan
S Korea
Others
Total
Zealand
Europe
n
a
Asia
Islands
1999
118,272 72,156
62,131 13,552
40,316
28,371
37,930
784
319
1,489 6,694
26,090
1,851
409,955
2000
76,883
49,470
52,534
10,532
29,215
22,506
19,674
610
277
3,386
5,863
21,534
1,586
294,070
2001
98,213 66,472
57,711 10,752
30,508
20,917
20,411
776
304
8,413 8,263
23,608
1,936
348,014
2002
123,606
68,293
58,815
9,802
43,393
21,654
26,382
922
316
6,992
11,128
24,051
2,505
397,859
2003
141,873 75,016
58,323 10,990
49,794
21,847
23,464
870
268
8,380
10,283
28,167
1,525
430,800
Source: Embarkation and Disembarkation Cards - Department of Immigration 2005

Table 8.31: Hotel Occupancy -Room and bed night occupancy rates
Room Night
Period
Bed Night Occupancy
Occupancy
2000 48.7
36.3
2001
46.5
37.3
2002 55.6
43.7
2003
55.9
44.9
2004 61.3
51.7
2005
64.4
54.6
Source: Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics 2006
Table 8.32: Labour Supply and Demand in Fiji 2002-2007
Average Annual

Labour Supply and
Category
2002-2007
Demand

2002
2002-2007
School leavers
14,500
72,500
Belated entrants
600
3,000
SUPPLY
New Entrants
Laid-off workers
2,400
12,000
Never attended school
200
1,000
Total Supply
17,700
88,500
Replacements for
2,070 11,350
emigrants
Employment
Replacements for attrition
2,900
14,500
DEMAND Opportunities (formal
sector)
New Jobs Created (@2.6%
4,000 20,000
GDP per annum)
Total Demand
8,970
44.950
Employment

Requirements (informal
Total Required
8,730
43,650
sector)
Source: Fiji Ministry of Education & ADB Study skills report, 2006

129

Table 8.33: DOMESTIC EXPORTS
8.3 VALUE OF DOMESTIC EXPORTS









[FJD000]























Period/HS
Codes I II III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X XI
Chemical
Wood,
Textiles

Live
Vegetable
Animal
or
Prepared
Mineral
s Plastic,
Raw
Hides,
Cork Wood
Pulp,
&
Vegetabl
Foodstuffs
Product
Rubber
Skins,

Animals:

Products
e
,
s and &
Leather
& Articles Paper &
Textile
Thereof
Paperboard

Animal

Oils
&
Beverages, Allied
Articles
Articles
&
, Articles

Products

Fats
Spirits &

Products
Thereof Thereof and Plaiting
& Articles

Travel




Tobacco



Goods Material
Thereof













01 -05
06 -14
15
16 - 24
25 - 27
28 - 38
39 - 40
41 - 43
44 - 46
47 - 49
50 - 63
Yearly











2000
89332
35964
4933
292338
6076
6853
1839
6149
43441
14344
353138
2001
96799
34320
3218
305920
7877
6978
2188
1775
39579
15959
322104
2002
79419
31045
6787
316683
8244
8344
5100
2101
38909
15238
231262
2003
84747
35941
5892
319519
3456
11216
2320
1456
30848
18693
249749
2004
89296
47811
6027
335230
1962
10307
1529
1099
42039
16508
232640
2005[p]

91268
45732
5666
374616
3610
11829
2190
965
45057
15766
133430
2006[p]

108521
53245
4703
386221
6238
11625
3457
1393
37590
19354
104989

Source: Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics 2006

130

Table 8.34: EXPORTS

8.10 RETAINED IMPORTS CLASSIFIED BY BROAD ECONOMIC CATEGORIES (BEC)






[FJD000]






















Percentage Change




Economic

Category
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004 2005[p]
2006[p]
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
1*
Food and Beverage













11* Primary












111*
Mainly for

industry
55191 56099 65830 66636 74213 76258 91284
1.645196
17.34612
1.224366
11.37073
2.755582
19.70416
112*
Mainly for
household

consumption 41182 46039 45676 53422 57387 55711 63219
11.79399
-0.78846
16.95858
7.422036
-2.92052
13.47669

12*

Processed





121*
Mainly for

industry
21688 25117 26605 32246 31767 30063 32673
15.81059
5.924274
21.20278
-1.48546
-5.36406
8.681768
122*
Mainly for
household

consumption 107543 188495 178726 193265 205558 206709 202775
75.27408
-5.18263
8.134799
6.360696
0.559939
-1.90316
2*
Industrial Supplies Not Elsewhere specified










21*

Primary 12648 10390 10981 15588 10025 13581 20331
-17.8526
5.688162
41.95428
-35.6877
35.47132
49.70179
22*

Processed
446589 420487 410867 474635 588833 567792 598315
-5.84475
-2.28782
15.52035
24.06017
-3.57334
5.375736
3*
Fuels and Lubricants













31*

Primary 1594 1983 1823 1323 1422 723 53
24.40402
-8.06858
-27.4273
7.482993
-49.1561
-92.6694

32*

Processed





321*

Motor
spirit
14651 40859 29841 35819 46495 49257 70062
178.882
-26.9659
20.03284
29.80541
5.940424
42.23765
322*

Other
217255 244039 216210 235127 364191 455681 18503
12.32837
-11.4035
8.749364
54.89119
25.12143
-95.9395
4*
Capital Goods (Except Transport Equipment) and parts and Accessories thereof






41* Capital
goods (except
transport

equipmet)
161309 170326 156271 186455 214747 261890 298894
5.589893
-8.25182
19.31516
15.17363
21.95281
14.1296
42* Parts and

accessories
87640 100975 97450 103723 128435 130879 142481
15.21565
-3.49096
6.437147
23.825
1.902908
8.864677
5*
Transport Equipment and Parts and Accessories thereof








51*
Passenger

motor
cars
27398 29425 43998 49396 54607 53233 53569
7.39835
49.52591
12.26874
10.54944
-2.51616
0.631187

52* Other














521*
31416
39121
57421
214647
81685
65583
103753 24.52572
46.77795
273.8127
-61.9445
-19.7123
58.20106

131

Industrial
522*

Non-industrial 4756 16735 6021 6798 16619 9360 13161
251.8713
-64.0215
12.90483
144.469
-43.6789
40.60897
53* Parts and

accessories 50126 47029 48017 75837 73467 82451 79093
-6.17843
2.100831
57.93781
-3.12512
12.22862
-4.07272
6*
Consumer Goods Not Elsewhere Specified










61*

Durable 52829 59440 62797 71425 79725 90483 86956
12.51396
5.647712
13.73951
11.62058
13.49389
-3.89797
62* Semi-

durable
103473 80708 79474 90234 74465
107309
106456
-22.0009
-1.52897
13.53902
-17.4757
44.10663
-0.7949
63* Non-

durable
98429 89082 93660 97974 119028 112110 116651
-9.49619
5.139085
4.606022
21.48937
-5.81208
4.050486
Goods Not
Elsewhere
7*
Specified
[
r] 127691 115281 77640 82780 24152 8746
654391
-98.6553
3309.091
6.620299
-70.8239
-63.7877
7382.175
TOTAL
RETAINED

IMPORTS
1663408 1786430 1711908 1973830 2246821 2377819 2752620 8.449206
-2.0594
15.3
13.83052
5.830371
15.76239
















Source: Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics 2006





















Appendix 9.0: Budget Estimate for the proposals


132

Detail
Projections
Description
Description
Budget Estimate
Remarks
1.National Qualification Framework Organisation(NQF)
To house the following division/personnel



1.Quality (NQF)
Staff Salary *1
30,000.00

2.Standards
Staff Salary *1
30,000.00

3. Qualifications ( NQF)
Staff Salary *1
30,000.00
These are indicative

4. Accreditation
Staff Salary *1
30,000.00
estimates. All are essential for
the implementation of NQF.

5. Acts/ National Policy
Staff Salary *1
30,000.00
TVET providers including FIT,

6. Funding
Staff Salary *1
30,000.00
TPAF, private trainers, MOE,




MOY etc

Structure/ Buildings/ Equipment
Infrastructure
200,000.00







Managers 1
60,000.00



Executive Officer
1
15,000.00


Driver/ Messenger
1
8,000.00


Vehicle
1
30,000.00

Sub Total


493,000.00

2. Reorganisation/ Restructure of FIT, TPAF and other
providers

Curriculum



Staffing



Facilities,



Administration cost



Infrastructure



Industry Attachment



Insurance Cover


Restructure cost kept to

franchise/Articulation cost

600,000.00
a minimum
Estimate
Source: Consultation with Ministry of Finance, Budget
Division
Grand Total 1,586,000.00

Possible Approaches to meet the Project Cost
1. Training providers to share the cost based on the proved productivity and restructure.
2. Government & Ministry of Finance to allocate operation budget for the project
3. Donors like ILO, CPSC, ADB to assist
Possible Alternative suggestions for the NQF Establishment
1. TPAF to start up the NQF based at their Narere Centre for the next 2 years


133





Photos Gallery












Discussion and Meeting with Principals at Labasa Secondary Schools













Meeting with Teachers at Ratu Navula Secondary School


















Discussion with Ratu Navula Teaches




















After discussions at the University of Fiji

134


   © 2006, USP Library. Copyright & Disclaimer                         Contact Us
last updated Sat Sep 01, 2012